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Med Neuro2 Lect13&14

Med Neuro2 Lect13 & 14 Visual Pathway

What occurs to an image as it passes through the lens onto the retina? The image is inverted Superior/inferiorly as well as Left/Right. (Inverted and flipped)
What feature of our vision aids in the ridding the blind spots created by the optic discs? Binocular vision
The Left Lateral geniculate nuclei will recieve info from what? 1.Ipsilateral (L) temporal retinal info (stays on same side at the optic chiasm). 2.Contralateral (R) nasal retinal info (crosses over at the optic chiasm).
What are the lateral geniculate (recieving retinal information from the optic tracts) nuclei apart of? Where does it transmit to? Thalamus. **Relays to the Primary visual Cortex
Trace the pathway of retinal information from the R nasal retina lower visual field to the primary visual cortex 1.R optic N. 2.Optic Chiasm. 3.L optic Tract. 4.L lateral geniculate nuclei. 5.L Superior Optic radiation. 6.Superior L Primary visual cortex (striate area 17)
Within the lateral geniculate nuclei, which layers control the contralateral nasal retinal info? the ipsilateral temporal retinal info? CONTRA: 6 & 4 (parvocellular), 1 (magnocellular). IPSI: 5 & 3 (Parvocellular), 2 (magnocellular).
What is the input from and output to in the Parvocellular layers? what are its main functions? INPUT from: Retinal ganglion midget cells. OUTPUT to: Primary visual cortex 4CB. **Controls color (midget cells) and form (Amacrine cells). (layers 3-6)
What is the input from and output to in the Magnocellular layers? what are its main functions? INPUT from: retinal ganglion parasol cells. OUTPUT to: Primary visual Cortex 4Ca. **Controls motion & spatial analysis. (layers 1 & 2).
How would color reach primary visual cortex? 1.Detected by midget cells (retina). 2.Transmitted to Parvocellular region in the Lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus. 3.Layer 4CB in the Primary visual cortex (area 17). 4.Thin stripe of visual association cortex (area 18)
The L optic tract will carry information from where? RIGHT visual field from BOTH eyes (ipsilateral temporal retina & contralateral nasal retina).
The R optic tract will carry information from where? LEFT visual field from BOTH eyes (ipsilateral temporal retina & contralateral nasal retina).
Once info has reached the Primary Visual Cortex (area 17) where does motion & spatial relaions info move to be interpretted in areas 18 & 19 Superiorly. **in charge of the "where" an object is.
Once info has reached the Primary Visual Cortex (area 17) where does color & form info move to be interpretted in areas 18 & 19 LATERALLY. **in charge of the "what" an object is.
What is the Stria of Gennari? Myelinated band b/w 4Ca (motion) and 4CB (color & form).
Within the Primary visual cortex, where are the inferior and superior visual spaces located? What seperates them INFERIOR: Cuneus (superiorly). SUPERIOR: Lingula (inferiorly). **they are divided by Calcarine sulcus/fissure.
What do the Blobs within the Primary visual cortex represent? Specific colors.
What do the orientation columns within the Primary visual cortex represent? Light which comes is detected in a specific pattern (vertical, horizontal, diagonal).
What are the 2 ocular columns in the primary visual cortex? 1.Contralateral Ocular dominance Column. 2.Ipsilateral Ocular dominance column. **Need both eyes to influence here or you will develope a lazy eye or strabismus
Do the cells within the Primary Visual Cortex provide us with binocular vision? NO, they only get info from either a contra ipsilateral sides. **Binocular vision comes from secondary visual cortex
Where central visual fields of the eyes located in the Primary Visual cortex? Peripheral visual fields? CENTRAL: Posterior aspect of the Primary visual cortex. PERIPHERAL: Anterior aspect of the primary visual cotex.
Where is the lesion: one eye is completely normal, the other is too except for one small patch. Lesion is on part of the retina. **or could be retinal detachment or damage to Inferior Retinal A.
Where is the lesion: No visual info from one eye, other eye is completely fine Lesion is on the Optic nerve on ipsilateral side. **Monocular visual loss.
Where is the lesion: Not able to see the periphery on either side. "Tunnel vision" Lesion is on the Optic Chiasm (Bilateral Hemianopia). Not allowing images from the nasal retinas from either eye to cross over. **often due to pituitary issue.
Where is the lesion: Patient has no Left field of gaze with Either eye. Lesion is on the R optic tract, entire optic radiation, entire primary visual cortex (Contralateral Homonymous hemianopia).
Where is the lesion: Patien is unable to see superior contralateral space Lesion is on inferior loop of optic radiation OR lingula (lower bank of calcarine fissure). **Contralateral Superior quadrantanopia
Where is the lesion: Patien is unable to inferior contralateral space Lesion is on the superior loop of the optic radiation OR the cuneus (upper bank of calcarine fissure)
What tends to occur if the lesion is located within the Primary Visual Cortex? Macular sparing occurs. **will be able to see centrally.
What is the Superior Calliculus on the dorsal midbrain in control of? Visual Tracking. **allows us to anticipate where the object is going to move so we can coordinate our neck and head movements.
Describe the pathway involved in the pupillary light reflex with pupillary constriction 1.Light detected by photoreceptors-bipolar neurons-retinal ganglia. 2.Optic nerve. 3.Optic Chiasm. 4.Pretectal region. 5.Edinger-Westphal nucleus. 6.CN III. 7.Ciliary ganglion. 8.Pupillary sphincter (constrictor)
What does the Edinger-Westphal nucleus control? 1.Pupillary Constriction. 2.Ciliary muscles. **Under PNS control.
How would the pupillary light reflex be affected by an occulomotor nerve lesion (CN III)? No pupillary constriction with direct or indirect light stimulation. **will also see SR, IR, and MR problems.
How would the pupillary light reflex be affected by Horner's syndrome Inability to Dilate the pupil as much as the unaffected eye in a dark room or in regular light. Both pupils will constrict with direct or indirect light. **Dry eye as well
How would the pupillary light reflex be affected by Afferent pupillary defect? No motor response (pupil constriction) in EITHER eye when affected eye has direct light shinned in it. BOTH pupils will constrict when light is shinned in unaffected eye.
What provides us with sharpe binocular vision? Area 19
What is occuring during accommodation/convergence? 1.Area 19 communicates with Pretectal region. 2.Pretectal will activate CN III and MR so that the eyes will follow object inwards. **LR is activated when an object is moving further away.
Created by: WeeG
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