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Chp 8

Fundamentals of Disease

URI upper respiratory infection AKA URD upper respiratory disease; infection of the nose, sinuses, or pharynx
URIs include: Coryza, Sinusitis, Hay Fever, Tonsillitis (pharyngitis and laryngitis), Influenza
Coryza is AKA: the common cold
Coryza is caused by more than 200 different strains of: highly contagious viruses
Signs/symptoms of coryza: nasal conjestion, copious rhinorrhea, sneezing, pyrexia in children, pharyngitis, cough
Viscous yellow or green mucus secretion is a sign of a secondary bacterial infection such as: staph, strept, or pneumococci
Tx for coryza: antipyretics, decongestants, antitussives, fluids, rest, antibiotics (secondary infections)
Signs/symptoms of sinusitis: facial pain/pressure, cephalagia
Tx for sinusitis: antihistamines, decongestants, steam vaporizer
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
Causes of OSA: deviated septum, nasal polyps, lingual and/or soft palate prolapse
Untreated OSA increases the risk of: htn, cva, dm, mi, chf, arrhythmias, mdd
Tx for OSA: C-PAP device, surgical repair
C-PAP Continuous positive airway pressure, a particular type of ventilation therapy
SAR seasonal allergic rhinitis AKA hay fever
Hay fever (SAR) is usually caused by allergies to: pollens, ragweed, grasses
Signs/symptoms of hay fever: nasal congestion/sneezing, rhinorrea, cephalgia, erythematous, pruritic watery eyes, tinnitus, postnasal drip
Tx for SAR: antihistamines, decongestants, allergy desensitization
Tonsillitis: inflammation of the tonsils commonly caused by a virus
Signs/symptoms of tonsillitis: enlarged tonsils, dysphagia, pyrexia, pustules
Tonsillitis and cervical lymphadenopathy without rhinorrhea, sneezing, or coughing indicates: a bacterial infection
Tx for tonsillitis: gargling wih saltwater, antipyretics, antibiotics
Tx for chronic tonsillitis: T+A (tonsilectomy and adenoidectomy)
Influenza caused by A and B viruses
The flu season usually runs: November through March
Signs/symptoms of influenza: chills, fever, cough, pharyngitis, sneezing/rhinorrhea, thorocodynia, mylagia, headache, malaise, vommiting/diarrhea
About 24 to 72 hours after contracting influenza you will become: contagious even though you may be asymptomatic
Methods to reduce the risk of contracting influenza include: proper hand washing, avoid fomites, dont touch your face, ect, diet/excercise, annual immunization
Full immunization can take up to: two weeks
Influenza is particularly serious in the: very young, elderly, chronically ill
A complication associated with influenza is: pneumonia
Tx for influenza: bed rest, fluids, antipyretics, decongestants, antihistamines, antivirals, 7. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for immunocompromised
LRDs include: chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, CF, pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, pleurisy, TB, Bronchogenic carcinoma.
COPD consits of: chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, CF, pneumoconiosis
Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchi; can be acute or chronic
Bronchitis is commonly caused by respiratory irritants such as: air pollution, viruses, bacteria
Signs and symptoms of bronchitis include: chestpain, dyspnea, productive cough, fever and chills
Bronchitis often follows an: URI
Bronchitis is most serious in young children, the chronically ill, and the elderly because of the complication of: pneumonia
Tx for bronchitis: removal of irritants, antibiotics, Nebulizers
Asthma characterized by constriction of the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles, causing stenosis and spasms
rhonci breath sounds caused by bronchial spasms and stenosis
Exacerbation of asthma has been linked to: respiratory infection, weather changes, psychogenic factors, vigorous excercise
Exacerbation of asthma is caused by hypersensitivity to allergens such as: dust, molds, pollen, dander, fabrics, makeup, smoke, sprays, colognes, foods, NSAIDs, caffeine
Asthma is typically triggered by: allergies
There is no cure for asthma but attacks may become less severe with: age
Asthma incidence has also been associated with: ultra clean childhood environment,sedentary lifestyle, and obesity
The risk of asthma decreases if a child is : breastfed
Tx for asthma: avoid allergens, allergy desensitization, SAIDs, bronchodilators, Asmanex, Simbicort,Singulair
Asthma can be monitored by measuring the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled with a: PFM (peak flow meter)
Most severe form of asthma: status asthmaticus
status asthmaticus may end in: respiratory failure or death if not treated immediately
A common bronchodilator used to treat status asthmaticus is: epinephrine (Adrenaline)
Emphysema progressive irreversible loss of elasticity of the alveoli
Emphysema is commonly associated with: heavy cigarette smoking
Signs and symptoms of emphysema include: use of accessory muscles, dyspnea, DOE, fatigue, Rales, tachypnea, cyanosis, Barrel Chest, WT loss
Emphysema causes the heart to overwork causing: cardiomegaly and CHF
Diagnosis (Dx) of emphysema is confirmed with: pt hx, chest CT, ABGs and spirometry
Treatment (Tx) for emphysema includes: removal of irritants, bronchodilator meds, Mucolytics, Spiriva, O2 therapy, NPPV
pneumothorax A complication of emphysema is trapped air in the pleural cavities
atelectasis The increased air in the pleural cavities puts pressure on the lungs and can cause a collapse
An atelectasis can also be caused by: hemothorax, pyothorax, hydrothorax, spontaneous
Signs and symptoms of atelectasis: acute thoracodynia, dyspnea, tachypnea
Treatment (Tx) of atelectasis (collapsed lung) includes: insertion of a chest tube (pleurocentesis)
A common chest tube suction apparatus is called: Pleur-evac
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease affecting the lungs and pancreas of: young children and young adults
The most serious manifestation of CF: copious amounts of viscous mucus secretions in the lungs causing chronic airway obstructions
Signs/symptoms of CF: dypnea, rhonci, persistent cough, viscous sputum
Complications of CF: chronic respiratory infections and atelectasis
Treatment (Tx) of CF includes: antibiotics, Mucolytics, Diligent “pulmonary toilet” techniques
"Pulmonary toilet” refers to: Deep breathing and forceful coughing, CPT, postural drainage
Chest physiotherapy (CPT) is AKA: percusiion and vibration
CF also causes obstruction of pancreatic ducts that prevents secretion of pancreatic enzymes causing: malnutrition, which requires pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy
Pneumonia An acute inflammation of a lung(s) with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate
Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of: microorganisms
The inflammatory exudate can be referred to as: consolidation
Signs and symptoms of pneumonia include: thoracodynia, pyrexia and chills, productive cough, dyspnea, fatigue
The different types of pneumonia include: Lobar pneumonia, Bronchopneumonia, Primary atypical pneumonia , Secondary
Lobar pneumonia Treatment of lobar pneumonia includes antibiotics and “pulmonary toilet.”
Bronchopneumonia Treatment (Tx) of bronchopneumomia includes antibiotics and “pulmonary toilet.”
Primary atypical pneumonia This pneumonia may not require medical attention.
Secondary pneumonia Secondary pneumonia develops as a secondary disorder from other diseases that weaken the immune system
Diagnosis (Dx) of pneumonia is confirmed with a: CXR and sputum C+S
Pneumonia is more common with: AIDS, DM, cancer, cirrhosis, alcoholics, elderly, children, and postoperative patients
The return of the lung(s) to a normal condition is called: resolution
Pleurisy inflammation of pleural membranes; can be a complication of any lung disease
Primary symptom of pleurisy: sharp, stabbing thoracodynia on inspiration and when coughing
Tx for pleurisy: antibiotics, analgesics, bedrest
Tuberculosis bacterial lung infection characterized by necrosis of lung tissue
Untreated tuberculosis (TB) can spread to the: kidneys, brain or bone
TB is transmitted by: respiratory droplets
Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) include: SOB, nocturnal diaphoresus, WT loss, fatigue, productive cough, thoracodynia, hemoptysis
Exposure to tuberculosis (TB) can be detected by an intradermal skin test called a: PPD, tine, or Mantoux
Dx of TB: CXR and sputum Cx
tubercle standart TB lesion seen on a CXR
Tuberculosis (TB) is a very serious concern for those who are immunocompromised such as: AIDs pts, homeless, and infected immigrants
Tx for TB: antituberculine antibiotics Q.D for 4-9 months
Bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) arises in the bronchial tree and is commonly associated with cigarette smoking.
BC occurs more often in: men
Signs/symptoms of BC: persistant cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, anorexia, WT loss, weakness
Dx for BC: bronchoscopy and Bx
Tx for BC: surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
Px for BC: poor
The lungs are also common secondary sites for metastases from other systems such as: breast, GI tract, female reproductive system, kidneys
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome AKA crib death
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the major cause of death between ages: 1 month to 1 year
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs in all: social, economic, racial and ethnic groups
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs more often in : males
SIDS risk increases in: premature babies, low birth WT, multiple deliveries, infants born to teenagers, smoking, pregnancy, poor prenatal care, STDs, UTIs
SIDS may be related to decreased: serotonin levels in the brain
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) can be reduced by 40% if infants are put down lying on their: backs instead of their abdonmen
The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) can be reduced by 72% when infants slept in a room where a: fan was on
High risk neonates are commonly prescribed: apnea monitors
Created by: RBarnes86