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Med. lang chpt 16

the Endocrine system

endocrine glands that secrete hormones(crine) within(endo)
hormones chemical catalysis
catalyst anything causing a reaction to occur
The Endocrine glands include: 1.Pituitary gland 2.Thyroid gland 3.Parathyroid glands 4.Adrenal glands 5.Pancreas
Pituitary gland is AKA hypophysis or "master gland" because it controls other endocrine glands by secreting hormones
The pituitary gland (hypophysis, master gland) is located at the base of the brain and is the size of a pea
Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland include 1.Growth Hormone(GH) 2.AdrenoCorticoTropic hormone(ACTH) 3.ThyroidStimulatingHormone(TSH) 4.GonadoTropic hormone 5.Prolactin is AKA lactogenic hormone 6.OxyTocin (OT) 7.AntiDiurettic hormone(ADH) 8.Follicle Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
growth hormone (GH)causes growth and development of the body
AdrenoCorticoTropic (ACTH) will stimulate the adrenal gland to secrete their hormones AKA steroids
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) AKA thyrotropin or T7 stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its hormone
tropin or tropic means I come from the pituitary gland
Gonadotropic hormone aids in the development of secondary sexual characteristics
female secondary sexual characteristics include a.Breast development b.Pubic, Body and axillary hair c.Widening of the pelvis for children d.Menses
male secondary sexual characteristics include a.facial, pubic, and body hair b.Lower voice c.Development of the superior(upper) male body musculature
Primary sexual characteristics refer to whether you are Male or Female
Prolactin AKA lactogenic hormone stimulates breast development and Milk production in women
OxyTocin (OT) stimulates uterine contractions during labor
synthetic OxyTocin(OT) is called Pitocin ("pit drip")
synthetic means artificially made
Pitocin is used to induce(start) labor
AntiDiuretic Hormone(ADH) stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates maturation of a follicle into an ovum
A follicle is AKA egg cell (oocyte)
A mature oocyte is called an ovum
The thyroid gland is located adjacent(next) to the larynx(voice box)
the thyroid gland is made up of sections called lobes
Hormones secreted by the thyroid include 1.Thyroxine AKA T3 + T4 2.Calcitonin
Thyroxine (T3+T4) has a direct influence on metabolism
Metabolism is the rate at which the body burns energy
A synthetic Thyroxine(T3+T4) is called Synthroid
Calcitonin is a hormone that stimulates the bones to absorb Calcium(Ca)
A synthetic calcitonin is called Miacalcin
Calcitonin is not Calcium(Ca) but a hormone to absorb calcium(Ca)
Parathyroid glands are located posterior to the thyroid gland
The hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland is ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH)
ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) stimulates the bones to release Calcium(Ca) into the bloodstream
ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) will be secreted when blood Calcium(Ca) levels fall
A blood condition of deficient Calcium(Ca) is called hypocalcemia (calcipenia)
Blood calcium levels will fall if a person does not ingest enough daily dietary Calcium(Ca)
The recommended daily minimum requirement of Calcium(Ca) is three/four - 8 ounce glasses of milk or the equivalent every day
Food rich in calcium(Ca) include dairy, broccoli and sardines
Homeostasis refers to a continuous struggle to maintain a metabolic balance in the body
The body will try to maintain Calcium(Ca) homeostasis by releasing ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) if you do not ingest enough daily dietary Calcium(Ca)
The ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) will cause the bones to release Calcium(Ca) into the bloodstream
The tissue that has priority for the Calcium(Ca) stored in the bones is muscle(heart)
over time, ParaThyroid Hormone(PTH) can cause osteomalacia and osteoporosis
Adrenal glands are located in the suprarenal areas (above a kidney)
Hormones secreted by the adrenal glands include 1.Cortisal 2.Aldosterone 3.Adrenalin
the functions of Cortisol include a.Aids with the adverse effects of stress b.Aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Carbohydrates are necessary for energy
Fats are necessary for the absorption of certain vitamins
Proteins are necessary for growth and repair
Aldosterone is necessary for the regulation of the body salts
The salts of the body are AKA electrolytes("lytes") a. Sodium(Na) b. Potassium(K) c. Chloride(Cl)
Adrenalin is AKA epinephrine("epi")
The secretion of Adrenalin (epinephrine) promotes a fight or flight response
the "fight or flight response" include a.Tachycardia b.Tachypenia c.Bronchodilation d.Pupil dilation e.Pallor
The tachycardia, tachypnea, and bronchodilation aid the body with increased respiration and delivery of oxygenated blood to tissues
the pupils dilate to increase your Visual Field(VF)
Pallor is caused by shunting (divert or redirect) of blood from the periphery (SKIN) to the major organs and large muscle groups
The pancreas is located retrogastric (posterior(behind) to the stomach)
A hormone excreted by the pancreas is insulin
Insulin is necessary for glucose(sugar) to enter cells (opens the door for glucose(sugar) to be absorbed into the cells)
Insulin is released when Blood Sugar(BS) rises
Diabetes Mellitus(DM) insulin deficiency or insulin resistance
A synthetic insulin is called Humulin
cortex outer
adrenocorticohyperplasia excessive development of an adrenal cortex
adrenopathy disease condition of an adrenal gland
endocrinologist specialist in the study of the endocrine system
endocrinopathy any disease condition of the endocrine system
exophthalmic or exophthalmous abnormal protrusion of the eye balls
polydipsia a condition of excessive thirst
dips/o thirst
polyuria a condition of excessive urination
polyphagia a condition of excessive hunger
-phagia swallowing
adrenalectomy surgical removal of an adrenal gland
parathyroidectomy surgical removal of a parathyroid gland(s)
thyroidotomy surgical incision of the thyroid gland
thyroparathyroidectomy surgical removal of the thyroid gland and parathyroid gland(s)
acromegaly enlargement of the extremities
acro- extremities
adrenalitis inflammation of an adrenal gland
hyperCalcemia blood condition of excessive Calcium(Ca)
hyperglycemia blood condition of excessive sugar
hyperKalemia blood condition of excessive potassium(K)
hypoNatremia blood condition of deficient sodium(Na)
thyroid scan X-ray of the thyroid using a radioactive contrast
Which department will perform thyroid scan Nuclear medicine
Materials that illuminate when exposed to X-rays are called radiopaque or contrast material
thyroid ultrasound a diagnostic image of the thyroid using sound waves
exocrine glands glands that secrete out
exocrine glands include a. Sebaceous glands which produce sebum(oil) b. Suboriferous glands which produce sweat c. Cerumenous glands which produce cerumen(ear wax) d. Lacrimal glands which produce tears
BS Blood Sugar(glucose)or Bowel Sounds or Breath Sounds
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
gt a drop (singular)
gtt drops(plural)
Ca Calcium or Cancer
I Iodine
PBI Protein Bound Iodine
RAIU RadioActive Iodine Uptake
Anytime you see the term IODINE in a test, it will usually refer to the thyroid gland
TFT Thyroid Function Tests
exocrine glands glands that secrete out
exocrine glands include a. sebaceous glands - produce sebum(oil) b. suboriferous glands - produce sweat c. cerumenous glands - produce cerumen(ear wax) d. lacrimal glands - produce tears
BS blood sugar (glucose) breath sounds bowel sounds
FBS Fasting Blood Sugar
GTT Glucose Tolerance Test
gt a drop (singular)
gtt drops (plural)
Ca Calcium or Cancer
I iodine
PBI Protein Bound Iodine
RAIU RadioActive Iodine Uptake
Anytime you see iodine in a test, it will usually refer to the Thyroid Gland
TFT Thyroid Function Tests
Created by: pattiluv