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Intro. To Nutrition


Factors contributing to increased food intake advertising, high sugar/high calorie foods, vending machines, more meals eaten in restaurants, all-you-can-eat buffets, poor selection of food in schools, poor self-control
Definition of nutrition to nourish
When does proper nutrition become important? conception
Definition of nutrient a source of nourishment
Three major functions of nutrients provide energy, build and repair body tissues and structures, regulate metabolism and maintain homeostasis
Definition of metabolism how we convert food into fuel and how efficiently we burn that fuel
Factors that affect metabolism age, gender, proportion of lean body mass, heredity, general health
Factors that affect homeostasis temperature, iron, energy, blood composition (glucose, fat, osmotic pressure/hydration), sleep
Definition and examples of macronutrients large nutrients (CHOs, lipids, proteins)
Definition and examples of micronutrients small nutrients (vitamins, minerals)
What are macronutrients used for? Used in large amounts to supply energy and build tissue
What are micronutrients used for? Used in smaller amounts to form specialized structures and regulate and control body processes
What is the most commonly forgotten nutrient? Water
What are the two possible roles a nutrient may have? Primary or supporting
What is a Calorie? amount of energy provided by a nutrient (amount of energy required to heat 1g of water 1 degree Celsius = 1 calorie)
How many Calories are in a gram of CHOs? 4
How many Calories are in a gram of lipids? 9
How many Calories are in a gram of proteins? 4
What is the ratio for a balanced diet? 3:1:1 (CHO:Protein:Lipid)
What percentage of fat intake should be trans fat? 0%
What percentage of fat intake can be saturated fat? 10% or less
Definition of proteins building blocks for body tissues
What makes up proteins? Amino acids
Optimal Nutrition Good
Undernutrition Diet that lacks quality OR quantity
Overt Malnutrition Diet that lacks quality AND quality
Overnutrition Excessive intake with minimal physical activity
What factors cause food guides to change? Increased nutrition knowledge, social, political, economics
What are the two types of digestive actions? Mechanical and chemical
What enzyme is released from the parotid gland to convert a starch into dextrins and maltose? Salivary amylase, or ptyalin
What are the two sources of enzymes that break down CHOs? Pancreas and small intestine
What do pancreatic secretions do? continues the breakdown of starch to maltose
What do intestinal secretions do? act on respective disaccharides to release the monosaccharides for absorption
What are the intestinal secretions? sucrase, lactase, and maltase
Created by: 706091315