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HHS Female Reproduct

Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures

amniocentesis Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid
colposcopy Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
endometrial biopsy Removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
Papanicolaou (Pap) test Cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
mammography Radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer
ultrasonography Process by which high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) produce and display an image from reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo
cerclage Suturing the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion. The sutures are removed prior to delivery
cesarean birth Incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus; also called C-section
Dilation and Curetage (D&C) Widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with a curette
episiotomy Incision of the perineum from the vaginal orifice usually done to prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate childbirth
hysterectomy Excision of the uterus
intrauterine device Plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine lining
lumpectomy Excision of a small primary breast tumor (a "lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mammoplasty Surgical reconstruction of the breast(s) to change the size, shape, or position
mastectomy Excision of the entire breast