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Endocrine System

Chabner, Language of Medicine 8th Ed., Ch 18 Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
adrenal cortex outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
adrenal medulla inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
ovaries located in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
pancreas located behind the stomach. Islet (alpha and beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secrete hormones. Also contains cells that are exocrine in function. They secrete enzymes, via a duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.
parathyroid glands four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland
pituitary gland (hypophysis) located at the base of the brain in the sella turcia; composed of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe
anterior lobe adenohypophysis
posterior lobe neurohypophysis
testes two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
thyroid gland located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine
adrenaline (epinephrine) secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex
aldosterone secreted by the andrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption
androgen male hormone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; increases reabsorption of water by the kidney
calcitonin secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels
epinephrine (adrenaline) secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic); it is part of the body's "fight or flight" reaction
estradiol estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries
estrogen female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex. examples are estradiol and estrone
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes
Created by: megaly ryan