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Med Neuro Lect3

Med Neuro Lect3 Neuronal Mechanisms Part 2

What accounts for 90% of the cells in the CNS? what are the 3 main types? GLIAL CELLS. 1.Astrocytes (protoplasmic and fibrous). 2.Oligodendrocytes. 3.Microglial cells. **all 3 aid in development and maintenance of neurons & Synapses.
3 main functions of Astrocytes (50% of cells in the CNS) 1.Metabolic compartmentation. 2.Synaptogenesis. 3.Tissue Repair (gliosis). **Form the BBB and traffic nutrients and waste in and out of neuronal somas (compartmentalize & protect brain).
What is Gliosis? Proliferation of astrocytes which forms glial scars. **Can be hamrful.
Is the neuronal cell membrane exposed to the extracellular? NO, it is MOSTLY covered by end feet of astrocytes, the rest are locations of Axosomatic synapses.
When might you see a fibrous gliosis? After a stroke
Are Oligodendrocytes limited to supporting only ONE axon like Schwann cells are? NO, they can wrap/myelinate and support multiple axons at a time.
Describe the myelin sheath that the Oligodendrocytes wrap around axons Flat (until axon is rolled up in it), protein and lipid rich. **Therefore viral infections can trigger an immune response which could then target the myelin (MS in CNS, Guillian Barret in PNS)
Corpus Callosum Heavily myelinated bridge b/w right and left hemispheres of the brain (will appear very white due all myelination). **Will see plaques there with MS due to overactive microglial cells.
What are Astrocytes and Oligodendrocytes derived from? Ectoderm.
What are Microglial cells derived from? Monocytes that have migrated out of the BL into the brain.
What will cause a proliferation of Microglial cells? what is their function? Damage to the brain, or to the BBB (allows more macrophages to migrate out of the BL). **They Phagocytize the damaged neurons (serve as the immune system of the brian).
What CNS cells are responsible for producing Cytokines? name the 4 it produces MICROGLIAL CELLS: 1.Interleukin-1. 2.Interleukin-6. 3.Tumor necrosis factor. 4.Transforming growth factor.
3 types of cells lining the brain 1.Ependymal cells (line the ventricles). 2.Choroid plexus (proliferating ependymal cells that produce CSF by acting like a glomerulus found in EACH ventricle). 3.Pial cells (flattened cells lining entire brain minus ventricles).
Since the brain is protected by BBB and linings, how do hormones and ions reach the BL from the Hypothalamus? Ependymal cells.
What connects the 2 lateral ventricles? Interventricular foramen.
Where does the 3rd ventricle lie? what connects it to the 4th ventricle? MIDLINE. **The cerebral aquaduct connects it to the 4th.
Where does the CSF go from the 4th ventricle? It drains into the subarachnoid space via 3 foramina (2 lateral, 1 medial).
Is there a choroid plexus in every ventricle? YES. The CSF it prodcues only circulates b/w the ventricles and subarachnoid space.
Is CSF production under neurogenic control? if so, what Inc or Dec production? YES. **SNS adrenergic system DEC production. **PNS cholinergic system INC production (by 2X).
How much CSF is produced per day and what drives its movement? 500-600mL per day (40% is extruded off ventricular wall). **Movement results from a hydrostatic gradient between ventricles and venous channels. Ventricular pressure can be 180 mm of water while that of the superior sagittal sinus is 90 mm of water
2 ways CSF drains from the subarachnoid space 1.Subarachnoid granules of superior sagittal sinus. 2.Spinal granulations of spinal nerves.
2 main functions of CSF 1.Waste removal. 2.Helps brain combat gravity by providing a floating material.
Hydrocephalus Imbalance b/w CSF prduction and drainage which leads to a build up of CSF from: 1.Overproduction. 2.Occlusion/blockage. **Very Destructive.
What occurs in hydrocephalus as a result of the build up of CSF? Brain becomes erroded.
What does hydrocephalus sometimes follow? (due to the increased dead brain tissue draining into the CSF and clogging the drainage pathways) STROKE (will develope rapidly afterwards if this occurs).
Created by: WeeG
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