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Bonewit Chapter 8

The Gynecologic Examination and Prenatal Care

Abortion The termination of the pregnancy before the fetus reached the age of viability (20 weeks).
Adnexal Adjacent.
Amenorrhea The absence or cessation of the menstrual period. Amenorrhea occurs normally before puberty, during pregnancy, and after menopause.
Atypical Deviation from the normal.
Braxton Hicks contractions Intermittent and irregular painless uterine contractions that occur throughout pregnancy. They occur more frequently towards the end of pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor pains.
Cervix The low narrow end of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
Colposcopy Examination of the cervix using a colposcope (a lighted instrument with a magnifying lens).
Cytology The science that deals with the study of cells, including their origin, structure, function, and pathology.
Dilation (of the cervix) The stretching of the external os from an opening a few millimeters wide to an opening large enough to allow the passage of an infant (approx 10 cm).
Dysmenorrhea Pain associated with the menstrual period.
Dyspareunia Pain in the vagina or pelvis experienced by a woman during sexual intercourse.
Dysplasia The growth of abnormal cells. Dysplasia is a precancerous condition that may or may not develop into cancer.
Ectocervix The part of the cervix that projects into the vagina and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
EDD Expected date of delivery, or due date.
Effacement The thinning of the cervical canal from 1 to 2 cm to paper thin to allow the infant to pass through during birth.
Embryo The child in utero from the time of conception to the beginning of the first trimester.
Endocervix The mucous membrane lining the cervical canal.
Engagement The entrance of the fetal head or the presenting part into the pelvic inlet.
Expected date of delivery (EDD) Projected birth date of the infant.
External os The opening of the cervical canal of the uterus into the vagina.
Fetal heart rate The number of times per minute the fetal heart beats.
Fetal heart tones The sounds of the heartbeat of the fetus heard through the mother's abdominal wall.
Fetus The child in utero from the third month after conception to birth; during the first 2 months of development, it is called an embryo.
Fundus The dome-shaped upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes.
Gestation The period of intrauterine development from conception to birth; the period of pregnancy. The average pregnancy lasts about 280 days, or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to child birth.
Gestational age The age of the fetus between conception and birth.
Gravidity The total number of pregnancies a woman has had regardless of duration, including a current pregnancy.
Gynecology The branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of reproductive organs of women.
Infant A child from birth to 12 months of age.
Internal os The internal opening of the cervical canal into the uterus.
Lochia A discharge from the uterus after delivery that consists of blood, tissue, WBC, and some bacteria.
Menopause The permanent cessation of menstruation, which usually occurs between ages 45 and 55.
Menorrhagia Excessive bleeding during menstrual period, in the number of days or the amount of blood or both. Also called dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB).
Metrorrhagia Bleeding between menstrual periods.
Multigravida A woman who has been pregnant more than once.
Multipara A woman who has completed two or more pregnancies to the age of fetal viability regardless of whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths.
Nullipara A woman who has not carried a pregnancy to the point of fetal viability (20 weeks of gestation).
Obstetrics The branch of medicine concerned with the care of the woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartal period.
Parity The condition of having borne offspring regardless of the outcome.
Perimenopause Before the onset of menopause, the phase during which the woman with regular periods changes to irregular cycles and increased periods of amenorrhea.
Perineum The external region between the vaginal orifice and the anus in the female and between the scrotum and the anus in a male.
Position The relation of the presenting part of the fetus to the paternal pelvis.
Postpartum Occurring after childbirth.
Preeclampsia A major complication with pregnancy, the cause is unknown but is characterized as increased hypertension, albuminuria, and edema. If untreated, it could evolve to eclampsia, which could cause maternal convulsions and coma.
Prenatal Before birth.
Presentation The part of the fetus that is closest to the cervix and delivered first. A cephalic presentation is when the head is on the Cx, and a breech presentation is when the buttox or feet are on the Cx.
Preterm birth Delivery occurring between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation regardless of whether the child was born alive or stillborn.
Primigravida A woman who is pregnant for the first time.
Primipara A woman who has carried a pregnancy to fetal viability (20 weeks of gestation) for the first time, regardless of whether the infant was stillborn or alive at birth.
Puerperium The period of time, usually 4 to 6 weeks after delivery, in which the uterus and the body systems are returning to normal.
Quickening The first movements of the fetus in the utero as felt by the mother, which usually occurs between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation and is felt consistently thereafter.
Risk factor Anything that increases an individual's chance of developing a disease. Some risk factors (e.g., smoking) can be avoided, but others cannot (e.g., age and family history).
Term birth Delivery occurring after 37 weeks of gestation regardless of whether the infant was born alive or stillborn.
Toxemia A condition that may occur in pregnant women that includes preeclampsia and eclampsia. Preeclampsia can turn to eclampsia if its undiagnosed or untreated, characterized by convulsions and coma.
Trimester Three months, or one third, of the gestational period of pregnancy.
Vulva The region of the external female genital organs.
Created by: hannahbirt