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Med Neuro Lect2

Med Neuro Lect2 Neuronal Mechanisms Part 1

Neuropil surrounds the nueron, contains: 1.fibers. 2.Dendrites. 3.Lots of BV. **Doesn't show up well on a Nissl Stain.
Does a neuronal soma contain all the organelles seen in a typical mammalian cell? YES
What structures are stained jet black by the Golgi stain 1.Axon. 2.Dendrites. **Nissl stain stains ER purple.
Chaperone Proteins Guide proteins once they are properly folded and translated. **Very important in neurons due to the high level of protein folding, trafficking, and packaging occuring.
What happens to protein aggregates that are mis-folded or start to build up within the cell? Ubiquitin is added to them and they are escorted to a proteosome to be degraded. **Problems with this or protein build up in general can cause Deposition Diseases
2 main types of Deposition diseases? (give example of each) 1.Demyelination (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome: most common, hereditary, affects PNS). 2.Degeneration (Alzheimer's: build up of non-fnc protein in CNS neurons). **Build up due to lack of processing of proteins. These lead to cell death.
Where will you find Micorfilaments? what are they involved in? Found in growing tips and dendritic spines. Involved in movement.
Where will you find Micortubules? what are they involved in? Found in axons, dendrites, and the soma. Involved in transporting and organizing.
Are Microtubules involved in the spindle apparatus in neurons? NOOO, they don't divide and therefore do not form spindle apparatuses.
Where will you find Intermediate filaments? Found mainly in axons
3 main types of Microtubules 1.Tubulins. 2.MAPs (create hooks on microtubules allowing them to interact). 3.MMPs (Kinesin & Dynein which are motor proteins mediating transport).
2 directions of Axonal transport? what MMP is used for each 1.Retrograde: Uses DYNEIN to move from the synaptic terminal to the cell body. 2.Anterograde: Uses Kinesin to move from the cell body to the synaptic terminal.
How can viruses infiltrate neurons? If they are picked up from the periphery extracellular fluid during vesicular endocytosis, they can be transported to the soma via RETROGRADE transport.
Slow Axonal transport Used to transport structural proteins. **ANTEROGRADE ONLY
Fast Axonal transport Used to transport synaptic related proteins. **Can be antero or retrograde.
Causes of Plaques and Tangles seen with Alzheimer's? what do they do? 1.Plaques: Build up of amyloid protein. 2.Tangles: Build up of Tau proteins. **1&2 cause cell death and brain atrophy bc they tie up cytoskeleton of the cell.
What occurs in a cytoskeletal disease Proteins are abnormally phosphorylated which ties the cytoskeleton together.
3 main components of Neuronal Metabolism 1.Oxidative Phosphorylation. 2.Decomposition of glucose to CO2 & H2O. 3.Energy is used to form NADH & ATP.
3 main areas of high concentrations of mitochondria & metabolism within the neuron 1.Soma. 2.Dendrites. 3.Axon terminal (Synaptic endings).
Mitochondria's role in Ca buffering During high cellular [Ca+] levels, Mitochondria can absorb excess Ca to prevent extreme excitation (Excitotoxicity) within the neuron.
What happens if the Mitochondria is unable to effectively buffer high Ca levels? Excitotoxicity can occur which leads to OXIDATIVE STRESS: productions of large amounts of free radicals which dissolves the cell internally cuases Apoptosis.
Mitochondrial Permeability Transition (MPT) Pores Serve as a Ca+ sink from the mitochondria. Normally they are transiently opened during cell signaling. **High [Ca] will cuase permanent opening leading to apoptosis from hypertonic swelling.
What diseases would you see permanent openings of MPT pores? 1.Alzheimer's (CNS). 2.ALS (PNS)
What are the only 2 locations of Adult neurogenesis in the CNS? 1.Olfactory Bulb. 2.Hippocampal Formation. **Difficult to re-grow due to complicated shape. This is the reason why there are NOT a lot of primary neuronal tumors.
What occurs at dendritic spines? synaptic connections
What determines the way a neuronal cell works? Shape of the Neuronal Dendritic Domain.
Dendritic domains: Purkinje cell Found in the cerebellar cortex: Elaborate dendritic tree with a flat domain.
Dendritic domains: Pyramidal (cortical) cell Found in the Cerebral cortex. Has a spine studed apical dendrite & lots of basal dendrites. **Apical dendrite can extend across multiple layers which can then integrate all that info.
Are all axons covered in something? YES. Myelinated or non-myelinated, they are still wrapped in something. **Myelin covers K+ channels which leads to a stronger depolarization at the nodes of Rhanvier
Are axons tapering or non-tapering? NON. **Dendrites are tapering b/c the signal dissapates as it moves along.
2 types of axonal distribution 1.Type I (Projection neurons): travel a longer distance to somewhere other than the brain. 2.Type II (local, circuit, interneurons): stay within the brain and CNS.
Is size of the axon related to it's conduction velocity? YES. The larger the axon, the more myelin wrapping (thicker) and thus the faster the conduction velocity.
Electrotonic Spread Seen in dendrites b/c they are tapering. it is the degradation of a signal b/c it is not self propagating.
In terms of neurons and axons, what does a "Nucleus" refer to? Cluster of like minded neurons in the brain that project their axons to another nucleus elsewhere
Topography Mapping of neurons from one nucleus to another. **This can be used to locate lesions causes specific sensation loss.
3 main locations of synapses 1.Axosomatic (synapsing onto a neuronal soma). 2.Axodendritic Shaft synapse. 3.Axodendritic Spine synapse.
Are all neurotransmitters produced in the soma and moved to the axon terminal via anterograde movement? NO, NON-peptide neurotransmitters are produced in the terminal itself. **Vesicle and Peptide come from the soma
What is responsible for opening V-gated Ca+ channels in the axon terminal and thus vesicular movement? ELECTROTONIC spread. **Not and AP
5 stages involved in vesicular release and recovery 1.Docking (moving vesicle to pre-syp mem). 2.Priming (Adding ATP). 3.Fusion/Exocytosis (Ca influx hydrolyzes ATP). 4.Endocytosis (brings in some extracellular fluid which could contain viruses). 5.Recycling. **SNARE proteins involved in 1 & 2.
Where is Endocytosis of the vesicle particularly problematic? Neuromuscular junctions. That extracellular fluid is exposed to body fluid so viral uptake is more likely. **Polio
2 main types of post-synaptic receptors 1.Ionotrophic (nicotinc): Ion channels that are very fast response but short lasting. 2.Metabotrophic (Muscarinic): associated w/ secondary messangers, much slower but last longer
Which post-synaptic receptor has the more powerful effect? Metabotrophic. **Can affect metabolism & muscarinic receptors.
Specific Dopamine receptors and their effects? 1.D1: Inc cAMP causing Satiety. 2.D2: Dec cAMP causing Craving. **Reinforces behavior and leads to addiction. Cocaine blocker re-uptake of dopamine which leads to prolonged satiety, also causes strong craving.
Are Glial cells involved in the re-uptake of neurotransmitter? YES. They uptake glutamate at glutaminergic synapses. **defective glial cells may impair neurotransmitter re-uptake which would cause overstimulation. **ALS could be treated with INC glial cell activity.
Created by: WeeG
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