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Bonewit chapter 8

The Gynecological Examination and Prenatal Care

Abortion the termination of the pregnancy before the fetus reached the age of viability(20 weeks)
Adnexal adjacent
Amenorrhea the absence or cessation of the menstrual period. amenorrhea occurs more normally before puberty,during pregnancy, and after menopause
Atypical deviation from the normal
Braxton Hicks contractions intermittent and irregular painless uterine contractions that occur throughout pregnancy.They occur more frequently toward the end of pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken to true labor pains.
Cervix the lower narrow end of the uterus that opens into the vagina
Colposcopy examination of the cervix using a colposcope (a lighted instrument with a magnifying lens)
Cytology the science that deals with the study of cells,including their origin, structure, function, and pathology.
Dilation(of the cervix) the stretching of the external os from an opening a few millimeters wide to an opening large enough to allow the passage of an infant (approximately 10 cm)
Dysmenorrhea pain associated with the menstrual period
Dyspareunia pain in the vagina or pelvis experienced by a woman during sexual intercourse
Dysplasia the growth of abnormal cells. Dysplasia is a precancerous condition that may or may not develop into cancer
Ectocervix the part of the cervix that projects into the vagina and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium
EDD expected date of delivery, or due date
Effacement the thinning and shortening of the cervical canal from its normal length of 1-2 cm to a structure with paper-thin edges in which there is no canal at all. this occurs in late in pregnancy, during labor, or both.this allows the child into the birth canal
Embryo the child in utero form the time of conception to the beginning of the first trimester
Endocervix the mucous membrane lining the cervical canal
Engagement the entrance of the fetal head of the presenting part into the pelvic inlet
Expected date of delivery (EDD) projected birth date of the infant
External os the opening of the cervical canal of the uterus into the vagina
Fetal heart rate the number of times per minute the fetal heart beats
Fetal heart tones the sounds of the heartbeat of the fetus heard through the mother's abdominal wall
Fetus the child in utero from the third month after conception to birth; during the first 2 months of development, is called an embryo
Fundus the dome-shaped upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes
Gestation the period of intrauterine development from conception to birth;the period of pregnancy. the average pregnancy lasts about 280 days,or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to birth
Gestational age the age of the fetus between conception and birth
Gravidity the total number of pregnancies a woman has had regardless of duration, including a current pregnancy
Gynecology the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases of reproductive organs of women
Infant a child from birth to 12 months of age
Internal os the internal opening of the cervical canal into the the uterus
Lochia a discharge from the uterus after delivery that consists of blood, tissue, white blood cells, and some bacteria
Menopause the permanent cessation of menstruation, which usually occurs between ages 45 and 55
Menorrhagia Excessive bleeding during a menstrual period, in the number of days or the amount of blood or both. also called dysfunctional uterine bleeding(DUB)
Metrorrhagia bleeding between menstrual periods
Multigravida a woman who has been pregnant more than once
Multipara a woman who has completed two or more pregnancies to the age of fetal viability regardless of whether they ended in live infants or stillbirths
Nullipara a woman who has not carried a pregnancy to the point of fetal viability (20 weeks of gestation)
Obstetrics the branch of medicine concerned with the care of the woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartal period
Parity the condition of having borne offspring regardless of the outcome
Perimenopause before the onset of menopause, the phase during which the woman with regular periods changes to irregular cycles and increased periods of amenorrhea
Perineum the eternal region between the vaginal orifice and the anus in a female and between the scrotum and the anus in a male
Position the relation of the presenting part of the fetus to the maternal pelvis
Postpartum occurring after childbirth
Preeclampsia a major complication of pregnancy, the cause is unknown, characterized by increasing hypertension, albuminuria, and edema. if neglected it can turn into eclampsia. preeclampsia usually occurs around 20 weeks and the end of the first week of postpartum
Prenatal before birth
Presentation indication of the part of the fetus that is closest to the cervix and is delivered first.Cephalic:delivery in which the fetal head is presented against the cervix.Breech:delivery in which the buttocks or feet are presented instead of the head
Preterm birth delivery occurring between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation regardless of whether the child was born alive or stillborn
Primigravida a woman who is pregnant for the first time
Primipara a woman who has carried a pregnancy to fetal viability(20 weeks of gestation)for the first time, regardless of whether the infant was stillborn or alive at birth
Puerperium the period of time,usually 4-6 weeks after delivery,in which the uterus and the body systems are returning to normal
Quickening the first movements of the fetus in utero as felt by the mother,which usually occurs between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation and is felt consistently thereafter
Risk factor anything that increases an individual's chance of developing a disease.some risk factors can be avoided(e.g.smoking),but others cannot(e.g.age and family history)
Term birth delivery occurring after 37 weeks of gestation regardless of whether the infant was born alive or stillborn
Toxemia a condition that can occur in pregnant women that includes preeclampsia and eclampsia.if preeclampsia goes undiagnosed or is not satisfactorily controlled, it could develop into eclampsia, characterized by convulsions and coma
Trimester three months,or on third,of the gestational period of pregnancy
Vulva the region of the external female genital organs
Created by: AnnaJoseph