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World hIst I leap

World History I leap Review

refers to the cutting and burning of forest or woodlands to create fields for agriculture or pasture. Ash serves as fertilizer Slash and Burn farming
Lines that run from east to west on a map and measure distances North and South from the Equator Latitudes
Lines that run North and South on a map and measure distances East and west from the Prime Meridian to the International Date Line Longitudes
The four main directions North, South, East, West Cardinal Directions
(NE, NW, SE, SW) Intermediate Directions
0 degrees latitude- The imaginary circle around Earth that is the same distance from the North and South Poles and divides Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres Equator
0 degrees longitude- passes through Greenwich, England, other lines of longitude are calculated from this line. It divides the Earth into the eastern and western hemisphere Prime Meridian
fresh water, fertile soil, mild climate, located near a body of water Land and climatic conditions good for human settlement
A way of supplying water to an area of land irrigation
triangle shaped area of land made from soil deposited by a river), pharaohs-(rulers of Egypt Delta
a mixture of fertile soil and tiny rocks that can make land ideal for farming silt
huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing. Rosetta Stone
Form the Boundry of Mesopotamia- (Land between two rivers)- Flooding created good fertile soil. They used canals to control the flooding. Tigris and Euphrates River
An Arc of territory that extends up from the Persian Gulf and curves Southwest along the Mediterannean into Present day Syria and Palestine. Area of Very Rich Soil ideal for the development of civilization Fertile Crecent
link between Alaska and Siberia that was above sea level during the Ice Age between 13,000 and 10,000 years ago and provided a route for prehistoric people and animals to cross into the Americas Bering Land Bridge
Mountains located in Asia- eastern border between India and China. Served as protection from invasion for the early civilizations of Ancient India and China. Himalaya Mountains
Pakistan, India. Farming found here 5,000 years before Egypt Indus River
cultivated area, designed as a method of soil conservation to prevent rapid surface runoff of irrigation water Terrace farming
An Arc of Rich farmland that extends up from the persian Gulf and estends along the Mediterrean Sea into syria and Palestine Fertile Cresent
What are reasons early people migrated? - searching for food and water, climate changes- flood or drought, trade opportunities, escape from religious or political persecution. (Persecution=Punishment
What were some Physical features that stopped migration? mountains, deserts, waterfalls
A link between Alaska and Siberia that was above sea level during the Ice Age between 13,000 and 10,000 years ago and provided a route for prehistoric people and animals to cross into the Americas Bering Land Bridge
Mountains located in Asia- eastern border between India and China. Served as protection from invasion for the early civilizations of Ancient India and China. Himalaya Mountains
Early Civilization found in India was along this river Indus river
the process by which a cultural trait, material object, idea, or behavior pattern is spread from one society to another Examples: Trade by the Phoenicians (spread their alphabet) Spread of the Islamic Empire- spread their religion. cultural diffusion
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia fought for control of the Holy Land from 1097 to 1291. Crusades
A network of trade routes that stretched across Asia from China to the Mediterranean Sea. Silk Road
Ancient China’s main trade item, because they were the only one’s who knew how to make it. If you told someone the secret of how to make it you would be punished by death, because their profit would decrease. Silk
capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. Constantinople
The theory that no group or country can produce everything it needs. People depend on other people to produce most of the goods and services required. Economic Interdependence
Goods that were traded among ancient civilizations cotton, papyrus, silk, wood, spices, ivory, copper
Wanderers, nomads- no permanent home-moved from place to place in search of food. Hunter Gatherers
Types of food for hunter gathers wild animals, berries, fish
Ancient shelters were made up of what materials ? Animal Skins and bones were used for shelter, clothing, tools, weapons
any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task were used to make what? Examples: chopper (stone), hand ax, spear, flint Early Tools
things needed for development of new civilizations, fresh water supply, rich soil, good climate for farming Natural Resources
mountains, waterfalls, desert, cataracts (rapids) provided protection for ancient civilizations are refered to as what? Natural Barriers
Man Built Barriers- built for protection from invaders Great Wall of China
What led to the development of agricultural societies? Domestication: The changing of plants and animals for human use- (animals- carrying heavy loads) Reasons: Cultivation: the planting, growing, and harvesting of crops or plants, or the preparation of land for this purpose
: period of technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems of crop rotation. Agricultural Revolution
Agriculture replaces hunting and gathering, villages and small cities form. Specialization develops due to agriculture- focus on new jobs-they are good at. Civilizations form- cultures develop with religion, government and specialization. Specialization
what areMajor rivers of Ancient civilizations the Tigris and Euphrates, Indus, Nile, Huang-He (River of Sorrows- because of the floods it caused which destroyed homes and crops) Rivers provide life (fresh water and fertile soil needed for farming)
What are thjings identified with Mesopotamia? Ziggurats-Code of Hammurabi- Sumerian city states- .
Wedding cake like temple to the Gods in Ancient MEsopotamia Ziggurats
world’s oldest written code of laws. Set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life. Code of Hammuriabi
A political unit consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside (Mesopotamia and Greece) City State
The world’s first system of writing; developed in Sumer Cuneiform
Things identified with ancient Egypt ruled by pharaohs, pyramids and mummification, hieroglyphics, irrigation methods, papyrus used for writing
Charateristics of Indus River CIvilization Planned cities- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa Monsoon- wind pattern that causes wet and dry seasons Agricultural society- life revolved around farming. Caste system- division of Indian society into groups based on rank, wealth, or occupation
Characteristics of Ancient China Civilization ideographs, warrior class, Mandate of Heaven/rule by dynasty (a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were said to be given the right to rule from a divine source- heaven), silk was the main trade item in China.
Superior military, believed military power was the way to provide security and protection Strong boys in Sparta trained for the military, weak boys were left to die. Government- ruled by two kings who jointly led army. Elected officials had most power Sparta (Greece)
from Southwest Asia- used horses, chariots, and advanced weapons to conquer Lower Egypt. Ruled Lower Egypt for 200 years Hyskos
City - State of Ancient Greece where Democracy was first formed. appreciated te Arts Athens
Invaders from central Asia. Skilled warriors- used chariots and advanced weapons. Took control of the Indus Valley. (Ancient India) Aryans-
An Area whose geographic features sharply separate it from the rest of a continent Subcontinent (Example India)
religious writings of the Aryans (India) Vedas
Aryan Languagethe most important language of Ancient India. Sanskrit
Leaders of local villages in India Rajas
What were Two key advantages of the Hyksos? 1. Master ironworkers, could make the strongest weapons 2. Successfully used the chariot- wheeled horse-drawn cart used in battle
What was a sharp division of people in India enforced by strict rules without any mobility? Caste System
Early trading culture in Greece- superior shipbuilders, traders. Volcano erupted causing a flood, ruining crops, and covering the city in ash. Minoans
Early trading culture in Greece- first people to speak Greek, built fortresses all over the Greek mainland. Took over Crete and became the major traders in the eastern Mediterranean. Mycenaean
What were Two Achievement casused by the intorduction of Ironin southwest Asia and the Mediterrean increased agriculture production. More crops could be grown and harvested more quickly. Military activity- iron weapons were stronger and more effective in battle.
What were the effects of Phoenician trade? Phoenician trading partners- Egypt and Greece, exchange of goods and information such as phonetic alphabet, indigo dye and cloth, nautical and shipbuilding skills.
Identify four forms of early writing with their respective civilization Greek alphabet, Egyptian hieroglyphics, Chinese symbols, Indus Valley pictographs
What were some cultural contributions of the Greeks? established direct democracy ( 1st democracy) in Athens, architecture, polis (city-states), literature such as epic poems and plays
Who was Alwexander the Great? One of the greatest military commanders in history. Conquered the Persian Empire. Expansion of the Greek empire and spread Greek culture throughout his empire.
Who was Saladin? Muslim Fighter in the Crusades. He captured part of the Holy land.
Early civilizations were called riverine cultures because they developed near rivers. How did the rivers contribute to the survival of these civilizations? They provided fresh water supply and rich soil for growing food
Which two geographical features most likely provided fertile land that gave rise to multiple city-states in the Mesopotamia region? Euphrates river and the Tigris River
Which activity made it easier for rulers to control large areas of land in ancient china? The creation of the Feudal System
Aqueducts in Rome brought what to the city? Water from far away
Something that makes a person leave an area and migate to another? Push
A famine is an example of what kind of factor in migration of people? Push
facor that cuses people to leave because they are attracked to another area for their benefit is what kind of factor? Pull
Better jobs is what kind of migrating factor? Pull
The medieval Crusades resulted in advances in what areas? Science and Architecture
What early civilization spread the use of a simple Alphabet as it traded with other people? Phoenicans
What was the main purpose of the Great Wall of China? To create a boundry between China and its Neighbors
What was the relationship tht existed between China and the Middle east in the 8th century A.D.? They traded with each otherEa
Early hunter gather socities in terms of mobility were what? Very Mobil, moved with the animals
Which of these features were necessary for early civiliztion? warm climate,nearby water,access to metals of flat areas to contruct house Nearby water
What is the most likly reason hunter gathers became farmers? Sccarcity of food
What were stone seals form indus river valley used for ? Trading
Mycennean civilization gave what feature to Minonan civilization? Their alphabet and system of writing
Why did Phonecians establish dozen of colonies along the Mediterranean coast? To improve and expand trade
Latin was the main language written and spoken where? Rome
Romance languages are languages that were influenced by Latin. What are three modern day languages influenced by Latin? Italian. French and Spanish
Which two ancient civilizations had very common religious beliefs? Greece and Roman
Out of Judaism, Islam, and Christainity , which holy book was the Torah? Judaism
Judaism, Christanity, and Islam all believed in what common thing? One God
Created by: twray