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SPH 261 Exam 2

Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism

QuestionAnswer
What is the primary function of the larynx? To protect the airway
What is the secondary function of the larynx? Provide the sound source for speech
Which muscles adduct the vocal folds? Thyroarytenoid (TA), Interarytenoid (IA), and Lateral Cricoarytenoid (LCA)
Which muscle lengthens and tenses the vocal folds? Cricothyroid (CT)
Which muscle abducts the vocal folds? Posterior Cricoarytenoid (PCA)
Name all the bones of the larynx or that support the larynx. Hyoid
Name the cartilages of the larynx. Thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis, arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform.
Name the paired cartilages. Arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform.
Name the unpaired cartilages. Thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis.
What is unique about the hyoid bone relative to all the other bones in the human body? It's the only bone that does not articulate with another bone.
As the arytenoids rock on the cricoid, the vocal processes can move in two directions. Describe the directions. The vocal processes move either upward and outward, or downward and inward.
Write a brief description of the vocal folds. Paired layered tissue structure extending from arytenoids to thyroids.
Define the glottis. The space between the vocal folds.
Define adduction. Vocal folds together.
Define abduction. Vocal folds apart.
What determines whether a laryngeal muscle is called intrinsic? Both attachments are within the larynx.
Name the intrinsic muscles of the larynx. Thyroarytenoid, Lateral Cricoarytenoid, Interarytenoid, Cricothyroid, Posterior Cricoarytenoid.
What determines whether a laryngeal muscle is called extrinsic? One attachment is within the larynx, one attachment is outside the larynx.
Name the extrinsic muscles of the larynx. Sternothyroid, thyrohyoid, inferior constrictors.
What determines whether a laryngeal muscle is called supplementary? No direct attachments to the larynx, but influence the larynx by attaching to the hyoid bone.
Name the supplementary muscles of the larynx. Digastric, Mylohyoid, Stylohyoid, Geniohyoid, genioglossus, Hyoglossus, Sternohyoid, Omohyoid.
The intrinsic muscles produce two types of adjustments of the vocal folds. What are they? Length and tension (long/tense and short/lax).
What are the two parts to the thyroarytenoid muscle? Thyrovocalis and thyromuscularis.
When unopposed by other muscles what is the effect of TA contraction on the vocal folds? Draws the arytenoid cartilages anteriorly and medially; shortens, relaxes, and adducts the vocal folds.
When opposed by other muscles what is the effect of TA contraction on the vocal folds? Increases internal tension of the vocal folds.
What are the two parts of the cricothyroid muscle? Pars rectus and pars oblique.
What is the effect of CT contraction on the cartilages and vocal folds? Pulls thyroid cartilage inferiorly and/or pulls cricoid superiorly; lengthens and tenses the vocal folds.
What is the effect of LCA contraction? Rocks arytenoid cartilages anteriorly and slides them laterally; directs vocal processes medially to adduct the vocal folds.
What is the effect of the interarytenoid muscle(s) contraction? Shortens the distance between the arytenoid cartilages to adduct the vocal folds.
What is the sole abductor of the vocal folds? Posterior Cricoarytenoid.
What is the effect of contracting the sternothyroid muscle? Pulls thyroid cartilage inferiorly (down).
What is the effect of contracting the thyrohyoid muscle? Decreases distance between thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone.
What is the effect of contracting the inferior constrictor? Reduces diameter of laryngopharynx and can stabilize the larynx.
Which intrinsic laryngeal muscles are innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN)? All intrinsic muscles except the cricothyroid (CT) muscle.
Why the RLN is called "recurrent"? Asymmetry in length between left and right sides (loops around).
Which intrinsic laryngeal muscles are innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN)? Cricothyroid.
What is in the 3 layer scheme? Mucosa, ligament, and muscle.
What is in the 5 layer scheme? Epithelium, superficial layer, intermediate layer, deep layer, muscle.
What is in the 2 layer scheme? Cover and body.
Explain the difference between the production of a glottal stop versus whispering. Glottal stop - vocal folds fully adducted; whisper - vocal folds slightly adducted.
Define the two parts of vocal fold motion. Translation (vocal fold mass moves laterally and medially) and rotation (vocal fold cover pivots around a point).
What is the fundamental frequency? The number of cycles of vocal fold vibration that could be completed in one second.
If you whisper, is there a fundamental frequency? No.
Would it be correct to describe vocal fold vibration as a repeating pattern of adduction and abduction? No, because they're staying adducted.
What was the hypothesis behind the Neurochronaxic theory of vocal fold vibration? Rapid activation of the TA muscles moves vocal folds away from midline to open glottis, release of TA activation allows return to midline.
The left branch of the RLN is about 10 cm longer than the right branch. Why is this a problem for the Neurochronaxic theory? If each vibration cycle of the vocal folds is initiated by a nerve impulse, the left vocal fold would move later than the right fold because of the greater distance the impulse must travel on the left side.
The vocal folds are sometimes represented (modeled) as a mass-spring-damper system. Explain how these three components are related to real vocal folds. The mass represents the effective mass of the tissue in vibration, the spring represents the elastic nature of the tissue, and the damper represents the loss of energy during vibration into the tissue.
To sustain oscillation the air pressure between the vocal folds need to push them outward at just the right time and then get out of the way. What are two mechanisms that allow this to happen? Glottal geometry and presence of the vocal tract.
What is phonation threshold pressure (PTP)? The minimum sub glottal pressure at which the vocal folds will sustain vibration.
Name two things that can affect PTP. Viscosity of tissue (hydrated vocal folds have lower PTP), prephonatory glottal width (lower PTP if vocal folds are close together), vocal fold structure, and the configuration of the vocal tract just above the glottis.
Which two laryngeal muscles are the primary controllers of F0? Thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid.
What mechanical characteristics of the vocal fold tissue determine F0? Effective mass in vibration and the elastic nature of the tissue.
What is the perceptual correlate of F0? Pitch.
What is passive stress? The opposing force that results from imposing a strain (stretch) on some material (tissue)
What is active stress? The force generated by contraction of a muscle.
Which parts of the vocal folds can have passive stress only? The mucosa and ligament.
Which parts of the vocal folds can also have active stress? The muscular portion of the vocal fold can contract and can have both passive and active stress.
As vocal fold tissue is stretched, the stress (tension) increases the most in which layer (or tissue type)? Ligament.
In general, why do children typically have higher F0s than adults? Children's larynges and vocal folds are smaller than adults, which results in an overall lower vocal fold mass which leads to a higher F0.
What major difference is there between the change in F0 over the lifespan for males versus females? Both drop F0 during development. Males drop to 100 Hz during puberty and begin to increase at age 40.
What are the three primary mechanisms that affect intensity? Increased lung pressure (respiratory drive), highly adducted vocal folds, and configuration of the vocal tract.
If a person is unable to achieve complete glottal closure during voice production, what quality or qualities might you expect to hear? Breathy voice.
What is a tremor? A rhythmical involuntary oscillatory movement of a body part.
What is a vocal tremor? Results from the transfer of the oscillatory movement of an anatomical structure to the sound generated during voice and speech production.
What type of vocal modulation does a respiratory tremor typically produce? Amplitude modulation because it systematically varies the sub glottal pressure, which leads to a systematical variation in intensity (amplitude).
What type of vocal modulation would a tremor of the CT muscle typically produce? Frequency modulation because it causes the vocal fold length to vary systematically, and when vocal fold length changes, the F0 will also change.
An electroglottography signal is representative of what aspect of vocal fold vibration? The amount of vocal fold tissue that is in contact at any given instant of time (i.e., vocal fold contact area).
What characteristics of an EGG signal would be expected for a breathy voice quality? Vocal fold vibration that has a small amount of tissue in contact, thus the EGG signal will generally have a long phase with zero amplitude and a short pulse-like phase representing contact.
What characteristics of an EGG signal would be expected for a pressed voiced quality? Large amount of tissue in contact over the duration of a cycle. The EGG signal will then have long phase with non-zero amplitude and a short phase with low amplitude.
Created by: schee