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World Civilization

HIST 1123 Section 005

Main power during 16th century in Europe CATHOLIC CHURCH
Who started Reformation? Martin Luther
Martin Luther ideas Salvation is not earned by good deeds but received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin
Martin Luther early life was characterized by? Obsession his own sin
Martin Luther taught Bible study
Martin Luther wrote 95 theses one night as the beginning of the protestant reformation. He posted the 95 theses at the door of Whitenberg. He emphasize: 1) justification by faith 2) the primacy of scripture 3) the priesthood of all believers
Martin Luther studied a professor of theology at the Univ. of Whitenberg
Martin Luther ideas were most readily accepted in Scandinavia
What is the significance of the Reformation? often reflected religious and ideological perspectives
What is the meaning absolutism power? Absolute power=unlimited power
Bodin attempted To determine the principles of universal law through a study of history
Principles of Boudin proposes A well-ordered state are based on the doctrine of sovereignty. " sovereighty consists in giving laws to the people without their consent"
Cardinal Richelieu Absolute monarchy in France
Raison D'etat National Interest- power government to do anything to maintain power
Louis XIV * Absolute was France * Centralizes the state * "I am France" "I am the state" * Versalles- house of the king
Ivan the Terrible *He wanted to create a centralized admin. * first ruler=tsar * know as the terrible by stabbing his son
Peter I-The Great "emperor of Russia" * founder Romanov Dynasty * he called himself "servant of his people" * founder Russian navy * he built St. Petersburg
John Calvin * created the "institutes the Christian religion" by puting protestantism together *major figure of the reformation * his ideas diverged from Catholic doctrine in the rejection of papal authority and in acceptance of justification by faith alone, but ma
Pope Alexander VI * age 25, he was appointed as vice-cancellor Roman Catholic Church, nepotism (favoritism shown to family)
Henry 8th * he received the title defender of faith * He married Catherine de Aragon later * He wanted divorce her to marry Ana Boleyn; pope Clement VII did not allow anullment * Thomas Cranmer annulled their marriage * First daughter Elizabeth (Henry&Catheri
Treaty of Westphalia 30 years of war meaning that Catholic church failed converting Germany into a monarquy. Switzerland became independent and separation of the united Spanish Netherlands * people became to look the interest of the state instead of religion
Protestant Reformation lead Europe into Catholic and Protestants principalities
Ottoman Empire survived more than 4 centuries * Osman (turkish chief) got successes against Byzantine empire
Ghazis/Frontier Warrior *warrior for faith * they were seen as Gods, protectors, empire fearless
Who succeeded after Ottoman? Orhon
What is the name of the new army Orhon created? collactive system or Devshirme system
Later this army became the... Janissaries=infantry rulers some became Viziers or Grand-viziers (ministers)
Ottomans dreamed... - Having Constantinople (part of the byzantine empire) - They separated Europe from Asia - It remained in the Christian hands
Mehmed II - Conquered constantinople and brought to an end the Byzantine Empire
May 29th, 1453 the forces of Mehmet II were symbolic center of Christianity
Who was Sultan Selim? Servant of Mecca and Medina
Who were the caliphs? equals religious (messenger of god)
What is sultan? means saculate power
Who is Suleyman (the Magnificient)? - he became the lawgiver (kanuni) - he married a harem girl, called Roxalana)
Suleyman governed? -Egypt and Belgrade (Serbia) in 1521
Suleyman architecture was called? Suleimania Mosque
What harem means? forbidden
When Suleyman died? 1566, then Ottoman Empired declines
What is Millets? religious communities
The Safavid are: Persian family
what religion the Safavid adopted? shi'ism
who are the Qizilbash? Militant group called "the red-heads"
What city captured Ismael? City of Tabriz in 1501
When city of Tabriz was captured; Ismael called himself? Ashah (king)
What Sufi means? mystical type of praying
Shi'ism says... The lead must be descendant from prophet Muhammed
Who was the greatest ruler of the Safavid Empire? Shah Abbas I
What territories Shah Abbas I recovered? Baghdad and other territories Ottoman empire had.
Isfahan is the capital of... Iran
The name of the army created by the safavid empire? Gulam
Martin Luther's early life was characterized by? Obsession of his own sin at the same time questioned the use of the sacraments
Which of the following are among the chief characteristics of John Calvin reform movement? - He argued that all people are sinners by nature - Few people where destined to go to heaven
The posting of the 95 theses talked about? the sales of indulgences
Raison d'etat (reason of the state) was used to maintain power of the government to do anything to maintain internal order.
What are the theological points of Martin?Luther? 1- justification of faith 2- the primacy of scripture 3- the priesthood of all believers
Treaty of Westphalia? ended the 30 years of war 1618-1648 and ended the protestant movement in 1648
Safavid Empire was overthrown 1722
Mughal empire of India was founded by the turks
Babur from Aphganistan conquered most of the Indian Continent
Humayun (son of Babur) became very supersticious and he learned by doing things and teaching
India became a British Colony in 1858
Ming Dynasty was the last pure dynasty
Zhue Yuanzhang(Hangwu) Founded de Ming Dynasty by getting rid of all the Mongols (first policy)
Zhue divided China into 15 provinces
Zhue classified Chinese people: 1- peasants 2- soldiers 3- workers
Who were the Eunuchs? dictators (castrated); they were also known as rulers
How Chinese obtained political positions? to become a bureaucratic you need to know CONFUCIONISM
What Confucionism concentrated? human morality and wrong actions
What century the Ming dynasty came to an end? 17 century
Last Ming emperor committed suicide
What dynasty replaced the Ming dynasty? The Qing Dynasty
The Qing dynasty was also known as The Manzhou/Manchuria
Who was Kang Xi? *he was a Mongolian emperor; well educated *he builf a lot of canals and opened ports to the European traders
Cultural highlights (Qing dynasty) phylosophy, history, painting, fictional narratives, landscape painting, caligraphy, poetry
Who is Oda Nobunaga? first leader using extensive firearms and firearms were important for trading
Who were Daimyo? * they were succeeded warrior nobles * they were powerful rulers from 10th -19th * pre-modern Japan that ruled most of the country from the vast
Who became a MILITARY MASTER of Japan? Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1590
Tokugawa Leyasu was named? shogun as soon as he got power
The samurais were the only allowed to carry weapons
What is the native Japanese religion? shinto
Toyotomi Tokuyawa brought Japan into an isolation to any outside influences
The isolation was almost complete known as? sakoku
Who is the founder of scientific revolution? Nicolaus Copernicus (Poland)
Nicolaus Copernicus work was? on the Revolution of the Heavenly spheres, 1543
Who is Tycho Brahe? he was an astronomer, from Denmark, known by his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations
What is the name of Tycho's lab? UNANIBORG CASTLE
Who is Giordano Bruno? (italian) * extremely outspoken * he could memorize a book just by reading it once * After the Roman Inquisition; he was burned
Giodano Bruno work? The Ash Wednesday Supper Heretic/ Heresy *he entertained the public by talking about the Copernicus ideas
Who is the father of Scientific Revolution? Galileo Galilei died 1727
What are the achievements of Galileo Galilei? *improvements to the telescope and Copernicanism * Finally after all his achievements; he was brought to inquisition and he renounce.
Who is Issac Newton? * he is from Lincolnshire, England * his passion the Bible * he was a wealthiest man
Major Newton's work? Principia Mathematica known as PRINCIPIA
What are the Newton's Laws? 1- laws of inertia 2- action and reaction 3- acceleration proportional force
Newton demonstrated that... the universe was a REGULATED MACHINE
Who is Maria Winkelmann? * she was a german astronomer * she was know by discovering a comet * she prepared calendars in Berlin
Who is Margaret Cavendish? * She is an English aristocrat, prolific writer, and scientist * know by her daily debates
Margaret Cavendish thought that... through science humans would be monsters of nature
What is the capital of enlightment? Paris
Who is the father of Liberalism? John Locke (social contract)
John Locke's famous work? Essay of Human understanding Tabula Rasa [ experience+ reasoning]
John Locke's important work? Two treatises of Government(he provided constitutionalism)
Who is Thomas Hobbes? *he is an English phylosopher (social contract) *he justify absolute authority *he believed that human life is the center of nature *he shared basic calvinism
Thomas Hobbes idea? the ruler provides security social order, but in return people has to do something
Thomas Hobbes's work? Leviathan
Who is the soul of enlightenment? Voltaire (social contract)
Voltaire wrote? 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 pamplets
Who are the philosophes? they were professionals; they came from nobility and middle class * they applied reason and common sense to social practices
Voltaire's work? Candide (critique human nature)
Denis Diderot better known by the... encyclopedia
Adam Smith wrote about? 1- free trade 2- division of labor (increase productivity and generate wealth)
Adam Smith's work? the theory of moral sentiments * universe is nor a perfect machine
Who is Jean Baptiste Colbert? Minister finances of France
Who is Jean Jacques Rousseau? - His work titled EMILE - He won a "dicourse on the arts and sciences" - He said that a person gets freedom only when you do things for others
When was the French Revolution? 1789, this was the bloodiest revolution
Who was the King of France? Louis XVI
Wife of Louis XVI? Marie Antoniette (madame deficit)
Created by: chinamienta