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AP Chap 25

AP World KM Chap 25

Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador who brought down the Aztec empire in 1519-1521
Treaty of Tordesillas According to this agreement of 1494, Spain could claim any land west of an imaginary line running near the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Portugal could claim any land east of that line. Hence, Portugal's claim to parts of modern-day Brazil.
Smallpox Part of the Colombian Exchange. Caused the decimation and even the extinction of indigenous peoples in both the Pacific area and the Western Hemisphere. Helped Europeans, especially the Spanish, to conquer and control new areas.
Conquistadors Coming from Spain, they pressed beyond the Caribbean island into Mexico, Panama, and Peru. Two most prominent were Cortes and Pizzaro. Laid foundation for colonizing the Americas
Mestizo (Metis) Part of the social heirarchy in Spanish and Portuguese colonies. European men entered into relationships with indigenous women; their children were the mestizos. Part of the central tier of society.
Settler colony Primarily English, French, and Dutch people who came to permanently settle in North America.
Peninsulares In Spanish/Portuguese colonies, these were the people born in the countries of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain and Portugal.
Mit'a System Spanish colonial labor system in which native villages had to send 1/7 of male population to work in mines at Potosi. Conditions extremely harsh. High death rates.
Hacienda Estates in Spanish America that by the 17th century produced food and craft products for sale to local markets and nearby mines.
Fur Trade In North America. Indigenous peoples trapped animals for Europeans and exchanged pelts for manufactured goods. Supported by a large chain of forts and trading posts.
Indentured Servitude Cheap source of labor for plantations of North America. Mainly European. Indenture sold to pay for passage or to pay for debts. Had to work for 4-7 years. Many died of disease, malnutrition, or overwork
Manila galleons Spanish trading ships (galleons) that carried large cargoes across the Pacific Ocean from Acapulco in Mexico to Manila in the Philippine Islands. Primary trade was silver for Asian luxury goods like silk and spices.
Dona Marina Malintzin Young Aztec girl from a noble family who acted as an interpreter for Cortes. She also served as a spy for Cortes and warned him of an upcoming attack by native warriors. Known in Mexico as "La Mallinche" or the Traitor.
Encomienda Spanish labor system that required both labor and tribute from conquered people. Spanish were supposed to look after their workers but many didn't. System was abused. Gradually goes out of use.
Seven Years' War In North America known as the French and Indian War. France loses Canada as a colony because of this war.
Francisco Pizzaro Spanish conquistador who conquered Peru. Massacred the ruling elites at what was supposed to be a conference. Looted gold and silver artifacts from the Inca and melted them down.
Viceroy Appointed ruler, similar to a governor. Viceroys ruled Spanish colonies along with the audiencias.
Mulattoes People of mixed racial heritage who were part African.
Potosi Rich silver-mining area in present-day Bolivia. Mining here gave rise to large settlement that housed miners and those who supplied food, made charcoal, fashioned tools, and otherwise supported the mining enterprise.
Silver Trade Stimulated Spanish economy in the Americas and even the world economy. Most silver crossed the Atlantic to be used in European trade while the rest was loaded into the Manila galleons for trade in the Pacific Rim.
Sugar Plantations Earliest ones in Portuguese Brazil. Revolved around the "engenho" or sugar mill. Large numbers of African slaves required to grow the crop and process it. Because of the importance of sugar in trade, owners of plantations had very high social status.
Tobacco One of the cash crops that could be marketed in Europe. Grown primarily in Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Product became highly popular because Europeans became addicted to nicotine. Created a demand for cheap slave labor.
James Cook Englishman who explored the Pacific area. He explored Botany Bay near present-day Sydney, Australia and reported that the area was good for settlement. Also explored Hawaii.