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PHM 316 ch 10

Nervous System

arthr/o articulation
cerebell/o cerebellum (little brain)
cerebr/o cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
crani/o skull
encephal/o entire brain
esthesi/o sensation
gangli/o ganglion (knot)
gli/o glue
gnos/o knowing
hypn/o sleep
somn/i sleep
somn/o sleep
kinesi/o movement
lex/o word or phrase
mening/o meninges (membrane)
meningi/o meninges (membrane)
myel/o spinal cord or bone marrow
narc/o stupor, sleep
neur/o nerve
phas/o speech
phob/o exaggerated fear or sensitivity
phor/o carry or bear
phren/o mind
psych/o mind
thym/o mind
schiz/o split
somat/o body
spin/o spine (thorn)
spondyl/o vertebra
vertebr/o vertebra
stere/o three dimensional or solid
tax/o order or coordination
thalam/o thalamus (a room)
ton/o tone or tension
top/o place
ventricul/o ventricle (belly or pouch)
cata- down
-asthenia weakness
-lepsy seizure
-mania condition of abnormal impulse toward
-paresis slight paralysis
-plegia paralysis
Central nervous system brain and spinal cord
brain portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
cerebrum largest portion of the brain. divided into right and left halves = cerebral hemispheres. connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. lobes of the cerebrum are named after the the bones they underlie
frontal lobe anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
parietal lobe portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
temporal lobe portion that lies below the frontal love, responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
occipital lobe position posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes, responsible for vision
thalamus (diencephalon) two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain, responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
gyri ring or circle. convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
sulci ditch; shallow grooves that separate gyri
fissures splitting crack, deep groves in the brain
cerebellum portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum, responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
brainstem region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum and cerebellum and spinal cord. responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature. 3 levels = mesencephalon(midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
ventricles series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae, responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
meninges three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid
peripheral nervous system nerves that branch from the CNS including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves), and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
cranial nerves 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
spinal nerves 31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
sensory nerves nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain (afferent nerves)
motor nerves nevers that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands (efferent nerves)
Autonomic nervous system nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
hypothalamus control center for the ANS located in the thalamus (diencephalon)
sympathetic nervous system division of the ANS concerned with preparing the body for stressful/emergency situations
parasympathetic nervous system division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions - counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
aphasia condition without speech. impairment due to localized brain injury that affects understanding retrieving and formulating meaningful and sequential elements of language
dysarthria conditions of difficult articulation; group of related speech impairments that may affect the speed, range, direction, strength and timing of motor movement as well as paralysis, weakness, or incoordination of speech muscles
dysphasia difficulty speaking
coma levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness - a common method of assessment is the glasgow coma scale
delirium state of mental confusion due to disturbances in cerebral function - causes are fever, shock, drug overdose
dementia impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
motor deficit loss or impairment of muscle function
sensory deficit loss of impairment of sensation
neuralgia pain along the course of a nerve
paralysis temporary or permanent loss of motor control
flaccid paralysis defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
spastic paralysis stiff and awkward muscle control cause by a CNS disorder
hemiparesis partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
sciatica pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
seizure sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from abnormal firing of nerve impulses
convulsion to pull together, type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
syncope fainting
tactile stimulation evoking a response by touching
hyperesthesia increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
paresthesia abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
Created by: HugsAndKisses