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chapter 11

respiratory system

Chapter 11Respiratory system
What is the respiratory system responsible for? The exchange of gases between the body and the air, process called respiration
In external respiration oxygen is inhaled into the lungs(when you breathe in) and carbon dioxide is exhaled(when you breathe out)
oxygen passes through the capillaries of the lungs (alveoli) into the pulmonary blood stream,
while carbon dioxide passes from the blood through the same capillaries into the lungs is exhaled(as you breathe out)
what are the organs of the respiratory system responsible for? producing sound and assisting in the body's defense against foreign materials
How does air enter the body? through the nose and mouth
Nostrils or Nares are the entrance to the nose
What are the nose and sinuses lined with? a mucous membranes; cilia are the hairlike projections on the mucous membrane that sweep dirt and foreign material toward the throat for elimination.
Pharynx (throat) is the airway that connects the mouth and nose to the larynx
3 sections of the Pharynx 1. nasopharynx, 2. oropharynx 3. laryngopharynx
nasopharynx upper portion located behind the nose
oropharynx middle portion located behind the mouth
laryngopharynx (hypopharynx) lower portion behind the larynx
larynx AKA: voice box
what does the larynx connect? the pharynx with the trachea
what is the larynx supported by? by nine cartilages, most prominent of which is the thyroid cartilage at the front that forms the Adam's Apple
lungs 2 cone-shaped, spongy organs (consisting of alveoli, blood vessels, elastic tissue and nerves)
lobes smaller divisions of the lungs; left lung has 2 lobes and right has 3 lobes
pleura double folded membrane that surrounds the lung
parietal pleura the outer layer of the pleura which lines the thoracic cavity EXTERNAL PLEURA
visceral pleura inner lining of the pleura which covers the lung INTERNAL PLEURA
pleural space small space between these membranes
diaphragm aids in the process of breathing
phrenic nerves process of breathing begins with these nerves; stimulates the diaphragm to contract and to relax; The motor nerves to the diaphragm.
inspiration inhalation; and expiration is exhalation
inhalation creates a decrease in the pressure within the thorax and draws air into the lungs
exhalation causes increase in pressure whithin the thorax which causes air to be forced out of the lungs
adenoids lymphatic tissue of the nasopharynx
alveoli air cells of the lungs; functional units of the lungs aka ( parenchyma)
bronchi 2 main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs
bronchiole smaller subdivisions of the bronchi tubes
epiglottis covers the entrance of the larynx when the individual swallows
larynx the enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue; the voice box
nares external nostrils
nasopharynx part of the pharynx located above the soft palate( post nasal space)
oropharynx central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
palatine tonsils lympatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces(the constricted opening leading from the mouth and the oral pharynx)
parietal pleura portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs it is the external pleura
pharynx passageway for air from the nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus. Serves both the respiratoryand digestive systems, the throat
pleura double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleura space the space that separates the visceral and parietal pleura, which contains fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration
trachea the windpipe that connects the oral cavity to the lungs; from the larynx to the bronchial tubes
visceral pleura portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs
apnea is a temporary cessation of breathing "without breathing" sleep apnea most common form
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
dyspnea air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain. SOB
epistaxis hemorrhage from the nose,NOSEBLEED
hypoxemia insufficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxia deficiency of oxygen
rhinorrhea is a thin, watery discharge from the nose; RUNNY NOSE
sneeze to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth
tachypnea abnormal rapidity of breathing
croup a childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficult breathing, stridor and laryngeal spasm ASSOCIATED W/ SCARLETT FEVER AND SCABIES
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx swallowing
pertussis an acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; WHOOPING COUGH
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose
sinusitis inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus
tonsillitis inflammation of the palatine tonsils; located in the area of the oropharynx
asthma dyspnea caused by aspasm of the bronchial tubes
3 types of asthma 1. exercise induced 2. allergy related chronic
bronchogenic carcinoma a malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer
emphysema chronic pulmonary disease; major cause is cigarette smoking; emphysema is a chronic obstruction of the inflow and outflow of air to the lungs
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
pleuritis (pleursy) inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
pneumothorax a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. thoracentesis will remove excess fluid or gas from the cavity
pulmonary embolism the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus(clot); most patients who die will do so in the first 2 hours after the embolism
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well or virtually well infant.
tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by the tubercule bacillus and mycobacterium tuberculosis
pulmonary function tests tests to assess respiratory function
thoracentesis involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
ABGs arterial blood gas(es)this is a blood test
AP anterposterior; meaning " from the front to the back"
COPD chronic obstuctive pulmonary disease (associated w/ chronic bronchitis and emphysema)
CXR chest x-ray
DPT diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), tetanus
LLL lower left lobe (of the lung)
LUL left upper lobe
RLL right lower lobe
RUL right upper lobe
RML right middle lobe
PA posteranterior; meaning back to front
PCP pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
PFT(s) pulmonary function test(s)
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
SOB shortness of breath
TB tuberculosis
URI upper respiratory infection; (upper meaning and infection from the trachea up; lower being lungs, bronchi, bronchioles
aden/o gland
-oid resembling
bronch/o bronchus; airway
-i noun ending
bronchi/o bronchioles
-ole small or little
laryng/o larynx
nas/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx
or/o mouth
pleur/o pleura
-a noun ending
-al pertaining to
trache/o trachea
viscer/o internal organs
orth/o straight
pne/o breathing
pneum/o lung; air
pneumon/o lungs
rhin/o nose
sinus/o sinus
thorac/o chest
trache/o trachea
a without
brady slow
dys bad, painful, disordered, difficult
hyp under, below, beneath, less than normal
ox/o oxygen
-emia blood condition
-ia condition
rhin/o nose
-rrhea discharge, flow
tachy rapid
tonsill/o tonsils
-genic pertaining to formation; producing
carcin/o cancer
-oma tumor
-thorax chest
-ary pertaining to
embol/i to throw
-ism condtion
pulmon/o lung
thor/a chest
-centesis surgical puncture
how does it all connect? pharynx connects mouth and nose to larynx; larynx connects the pharynx with the trachea; trachea branches into 2 bronchi; bronchi lead to lungs 1 to each; bronchi branch into smaller tubes(bronchioles); at the end of the bronchioles is the alveoli
Pertussis can be prevented by immunization of infants beginning at 3 mos of age. This immunization is one of the components of DPT
bronchitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes
newborn baby that is 30 days old or less
infant baby that is 12 months to 3 months
Created by: cmg50872