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PHM 316 ch 9


alveol/o alveolus (air sac)
bronch/o bronchus (airway)
bronchi/o bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o carbon dioxide
carb/o carbon dioxide
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
lob/o lobe (a portion)
nas/o nose
rhin/o nose
or/o mouth
ox/o oxygen
palat/o palate
pharyng/o pharynx(throat)
phren/o diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o air or lung
pneumon/o air or lung
pulmon/o lung
sinus/o sinus (cavity)
spir/o breathing
thorac/o chest
pector/o chest
steth/o chest
tonsill/o tonsil (almond)
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o uvula
-pnea breathing
nose warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract. houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
tonsils oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion. also called palatine tonsils
adenoid lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose, also called the pharyngeal tonsil
uvula small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
larynx voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway
trachea windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus
bronchial tree branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
right and left bronchus two primary airways branching frm the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs two spongy organs located in the thoracic cavity, enclosed by the diaphragm and the rib cage. responsible for respiration
lobes subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and 3 on the right
pleura membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of pleura
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
mediastinum partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the R and L lungs) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid(sticky) fluid
cilia hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
parenchyma functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea normal breathing
bradypnea slow breathing
tachypnea fast breathing
hypopnea shallow breathing
hypernea deep breathing
dyspnea difficulty breathing
apnea inability to breathe
orthopnea ability to breathe only in an upright position
cheyne-stokes respiration pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli. occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
rales popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli. occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
stridor a high pitched crowning sound that is a sign of obstruction of the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
caseous necrosis degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance (characteristic of tuberculosis)
dysphonia hoarseness
epistaxis nosebleed
expectoration coughing up and spitting out material from the lungs
sputum material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs
hypercapnia excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercarbia excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation excessive movement of air in and out of lungs causing hypocapnia
hypoventillation deficient movement of air in and out of lungs, causing hypercapnia
hypoxemia deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
pulmonary edema fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changesq
rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose
wheezes high-pitched musical sounds head on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway - occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
rhonchi high-pitched musical sounds head on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway - occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
Created by: HugsAndKisses