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KensMicrobiology

Chapters 6 - 9

QuestionAnswer
obligate aerobe Organisms that require oxygen to live
facultative anaerobe the ability to continue growing in the absence of oxygen
obligate anaerobe are bacteria that are unable to use molecular oxygen for energy-yielding reactions. In fact, most are harmed by it
aerotolerant anaerobe cannot use oxygen for growth, but they tole rate it fairly well
microaerophile They are aerobic they do require oxygen. However, they grow only in oxygen concentrations lower than those in air
culture medium A nutrient material prepared for the growth of microorganisms in a laboratory
inoculums Microbes that arc introduced into a culture medium to initiate growth
agar When it is desirable to grow bacteria on a solid medium, a solidifying agent such as agar is added to the medium
chemically defined media medium is one whose exact chemical composition is known
complex media made up of nutrients including extracts from yeasts, meat, or plants, or digests of proteins from these and other sources
selective media are designed to suppress the growth of unwanted bacteria and encourage the growth of the desired microbes
differential media make it easier to distinguish colonies of the desired organism from other colonies growing on the same plate
streak plate method A sterile inoculating loop is dipped into a mixed culture that contains more than one type of microbe and is streaked in a pattern over the surface of the nutrient medium. As the pattern is traced, bacteria are rubbed off the loop onto the medium. The las
generation time The time required for a cell to divide (and its population to double)
lag period of little or no cell division
log the cells begin to divide and enter a period of growth
stationary the growth rate slows, the number of microbial deaths balances the number of new cells
death number of deaths eventually exceeds the number of new cells formed
binary fission the process in which bacteria divide
CFU bacteria frequently grow linked in chains or as dumps
Biofilms biofilms are not just bacterial slime layers but biological systems the bacteria arc organized into a coordinated, functional community. Biofilms are usually attached to a surface
Colony will form that are exact copies of the original organism. A visible colony theoretically arises from a single spore or vegetative cell or from a group of the same microorganisms attached to one another in clumps or chains
Biofilms importance to Health microbes in biofilms are probably 1000 times more resistant to microbicides 70% of human bacterial infections involve biofilms. Most are probably related to biofilms on medical catheters
Sepsis from the Greek for decay or putrid, indicates bacterial contamination
Asepsis is the absence of significant contamination
Sterilization Destruction or removal of all forms of microbial life. including endospores but with the possible exception of prions
Disinfection Destruction of vegetative pathogens
Antisepsis Destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
Degerming Removal of microbes from a limited area, such as the skin around an injection site
Sanitization Treatment intended to lower microbial counts on eating and drinking utensils to safe public health levels
Biocide/germicide treatments that cause the outright death of microbes
Bacteriostasis inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria
Gene are segments of DNA (except in some viruses, in which they are made of RNA) that code for functional products
Genotype of an organism is its genetic makeup, the information that codes for all the particular characteristics of the organism. The genotype represents potential properties, but not the properties themselves
Phenotype refers to actual, expressed properties, such as the organism's ability to perform a particular chemical reaction. Phenotype, then, is the manifestation of genotype
Genome The genetic information in a cell
Proteome is the expression of the genome
genetic code the set of rules that determines how a nucleotide sequence is converted into the amino acid sequence of a protein
genetic recombination refers to the exchange of genes between two DNA molecules to form new combinations of genes on a chromosome crossing over
transformation genes are transferred from one bacterium to another as naked DNA in solution
conjugation conjugation requires direct cell-to-cell contact. Second, the conjugating cells must generally be of opposite mating type donor cells must carry the plasmid, and recipient cells usually do not
transduction In this process, bacterial DNA is transferred from a donor cell to a recipient cell inside a virus that infects bacteria, called a bacteriophage, or phage
transcription is the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template
codon groups of three nucleotides, such as AUG, GGC, or AAA. The sequence of codons on an mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids that will be in the protein being synthesized
translation Protein synthesis is called translation because it involves decoding the language of nucleic acids and converting that information into the language of proteins
mutation is a change in the base sequence of DNA. Such a change in the base sequence of a gene will sometimes cause a change in the product encoded by that gene
mutagen something that causes a mutation
vertical gene Transfer occurs when genes are passed from an organism to its offspring
horizontal gene transfer pass their genes laterally to other microbes of the same generation
biotechnology is the use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product. Microbes have been used in the commercial production of foods, vaccines, antibiotics, and vitamins for years
transformation a procedure during which cells can take up DNA from the surrounding environment
electroporation uses an electrical current to form microscopic pores in the membranes of cells
protoplast fusion are produced by enzymatically removing the cell wall, thereby allowing more direct access to the plasma membrane
microinjection This technique requ ires the use of a glass micropipette with a diameter that is much smaller than the cell
gene gun which can be used to insert DNA-coated " bullet s" into a cell.
subunit vaccines consisting only of a protein portion of a pathogen, have been produced for a number of diseases, notably hepatitis B. One of the advantages of a subunit vaccine is that there is no chance of becoming infected from the vaccine
DNA vaccines are usually circular plasmids that include a gene encoding a viral protein under the transcriptional control of a promoter region active in human cells
gene therapy removing some cells from a person and transforming them with a normal gene to replace a defective or mutated gene. When these cells are returned to the person, they should function normally
gene silencing- RNAi Double-stranded RNAs called small interfering RNAs (siRNA) that target a particular gene, such as a virus gene, can be introduced into a cell. The siRNA molecules bind to mRNA causing its enzymatic destruction, thus silencing the expression of a gene
human genome project The goal of this project was to sequence the entire human genome, approximately 3 billion nucleotide pairs, comprising 20,000 to 25,000 genes
sequencing of genomes determination of the exact sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA
bioinformatics the Science of understanding the function of genes through computer-assisted analysis
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