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chapter 8

The Gynecological Examination and Prenatal Care

abortion the termination of a pregnancy before the fetus reached the age of viability(20weeks).
adnexal adjacent
amenorrhea the absence or cessation of the menstrual period. amenorrhea occurs normally before puberty, during pregnancy, and after menopause.
atypical deviation from the normal
Braxton Hicks contractions intermittent and irrregualr painless uterine contractions that occur throughout pregnancy. they occur more frequently toward the end of pregnancy and are sometimes mistaken for true labor pains
cervix the lower narrow end of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
colposcopy examination of the cervix using a colposcope(a lighted instrument with a magnifying lens).
cytology the science that deals with the study of cells, including their origin, structure, function, and pathology.
dilation(of the cervix) the stretching of the external os from an opening a few milimeters wide to an opening large enough to allow an infant (approximately 10 cm)
dysmenorrhea pain associated with the mestrual period.
dyspareunia pain in the vagina or pelvis experienced bya women during sexual intercourse.
dysplasia the growth of abnormal cells. Dysplasia is a precancerous condition that may or may not develop into cancer.
ectocervix the part of the cervix the projects into the vagina and is lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
EDD expected date of delivery, or due date
effacement the thinning and shortening of the cervical canal. it happens late in pregnancy, during labor, or both. it dialates to permit the passage of the infant into the birth canal.
embryo the child utero from the time of conception to the beginning of the first trimester.
endocervix the mucous membrane lining the cervical canal
engagement the entrance of the fetal head or the presenting part into the pelvic inlet.
expected date of delivery (EDD) projected birth date of the infant
external os the opening of the cervical canal of the uterus into the vagina
fetal heart rate the number of times per minute the fteal heart beats
fetal heart tones the sound of the heart beat of the featus heard through the mother's abdominal wall
fetus the child in the utero from the third month after conception to birth; during the first 2 monthe of development, it is called and embryo
fundus the dome-shaped upper portion of the uterus between the fallopian tubes
gestation the period of intrauterine development from conception to birth; the period of pregnancy. the average pregnancy lasts 280 days, or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to childbirth.
gestation age the age of the fetus between conception and birth
gravidity the total number of pregnancies has had regardless of duration, including current pregnancy
gynecology the branch of medicine that deals with the disease of reproductive organs of women
infant a child from birth to 12 months of age
internal os the internal opening of the cervical canal into the uterus
lochia a discharge from the uterus after delivery that consists of blood, tissue, white blood cells, and some bacteria.
menopause the permanent cessation of mensuration, which usually occurs between the age of 45 and 55
menorrhagia excessive bleeding during a menstrual period, in the number of days or amount of blood or both. also called dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB)
metrorrhagia bleeding between menstrual periods
multigravida a women who has been pregnant more than once.
multipara a women who has completed two or more pregnancies to the age of fetal viability regardless of weather they ended in liveinfants or stillbirths
nullipara a women who has not carried a pregnancy to the point of fetal viability (20 weeks of gestation)
obstetrics the branch of medicine concerned with the care of the women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartal period.
parity the condition of having borne offspring regardless of the outcome
perimenopause before the onset of menopause, the phase during which the women with regular periods changes to irregular cycles and increased periods of amenorrhea
perineum the external region between the vaginal orifice and the anus in a female and between the scrotum and the anus in a male
position the relation of the presenting part of the fetus to the maternal pelvis
postpartum occuring after birth
preeclampsia a major complication in pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, albuminuria, and edema if not treated can cause eclampsia which could cause maternial convulsions and coma. usually occurs between the 20 week and the end of the first week of postpartum
prenatal before birth
presentation indication of the part of the fetus that is closest to the cervix and is delivered first.
preterm birth delivery occuring between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation regardless of weather the child was born alive or stillborn.
primigravida a women who is pregnant for the first time
primipara a women who has carried a pregnancy to fetal viability (20 weeks) for the first time, regardless of wheather the infant was or alive at birth.stillborn
puerperium the period of time, usually 4 to 6 weeks after delivery, in which the uterus and the body systems are returning to normal.
quickening the first movement of the fetus in utero as felt by the mother, which usually occurs between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation and is felt consistently there-after
risk factor anything that increases an individual's chances of developing a disease. some risk factors (e.g.,smoking) can be avoided, but others cannot (e.g., age and family history).
term birth delivery occuring after 37 weeks of gestation regardless of whether the infant was born alive or stillborn.
toxemia a condition that can occuring pregant women that include preeclampsia and eclampsia. if goes undiagnosed or uncontroled can cause eclampsia, characterized by convulsions and coma
trimester three months, or one third, of the gestational period of pregnancy.
vulva the region of the external female genital organs.
Created by: sashapalmer