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Hominoidea (Superfamily) No tails Brachiation adaptation Y-5 lower molar pattern
4 family groups • Hylobatidae • Pongidae • Panidae • Hominidae
Hylobatidae • Gibbons and Siamangs • Found in Southeast Asia and Indonesia • Small body size • Very long arms rel. to body size • Highly adapted for brachiation
Hylobatidae: Genus and species • Hylobates syndactylus (siamang) • Hylobates lar (gibbon)
Pongidae • Asian great ape • “Orang-utan” • Sexual dimorphism • Males twice the size of females
Pongo pygmaeus • Found on Borneo and Sumatra only • Reddish-orange fur • Quadrumanual locomotion • Solitary • Highly endangered • Occasional tool use
Panidae • African great apes • Knuckle-walking • All black fur • Genus groups: • Gorilla • Pan
Gorilla gorilla • Females up 150 lbs or more • Males up to 450lbs or more, massive head and neck • Knuckle-walkers • Vegetarian • 1 male (silverback), multi-female group • Highly endangered
Pan troglodytes • Common chimpanzee • Knuckle-walking, brachiation, climbing • Omnivore • Moderate sexual dimorphism • Multi-male, multifemale groups [“Fission-Fusion system”] • Leader is “Alpha Male” • Tool making/tool using
Pan paniscus Bonobos, Knuckle-walking, brachiation, climbing, Omnivore, Same size range as P.troglodytes, moderate sexual dimorphism, Arms and legs appear “slimmer”, Multi-male, multifemale groups, “Fission-Fusion system”, Leader is “Alpha female"
Pan paniscus con't Spend about 40% of time walking bipedally, • Use genital rubbing instead of fighting • Tool making/tool using • Highly endangered • Strong
Hominidae - Homo sapiens (humans) • Upright and habitual bipeds • Largest brain to body size ratio • Intelligent • Language • Complex tool making/use • Considering all Hominidae (extant and extinct: • only upright and habitual bipedalism
Bipedalism Advantages  See over tall grasses  Hands free  Tool making/use  Carrying babies  Carrying food  Energy efficiency  Cooling efficiency
Bipedalism Disadvantages  Predators see you  Slow at sprinting speed  Child birth complications  Lumbar arthritis
Primates • Divergent and grasping first digits on hands and feet • (aka, opposable thumbs) • Nails on fingers and toes • “Bony” ring around the eye orbit • Post-orbital closure • Eyes in front of face Stereoscopic vision
Primates con't • Reduced prognathism • Reduced reliance on • Large brain relative to body size • Greater intelligence • Long post-natal dependence period relative to lifespan • One (rarely two) offspring at a time sense of smell
Sub-order: Prosimii (“Prosimians”) • Nocturnal • Black and white vision • Projecting ears • More prognathic • Moist nose • Most are solitary • Auto-grooming • Grooming claw on 2nd digit of the foot • Dental comb
Super-Family:Lemuroidea (Lemurs) • Found only on Madagascar • Vertical clinging and leaping
Super-Family: Lorisoidea ( Loris, potto, galago) • Found in Africa and Asia • Slow and cautious climbing
Sub-Order: Anthropoidea (Anthropoids) • Diurnal • Color vision • Dry nose • Flat ears • Larger brain to body size ratio the Prosimii • Most live in groups • Allo-grooming • More dexterity in hands
Infra-Order: Platyrrhini • Broad nasal septum • Nostrils to side • Dental formula has 3 premolars
Infra-Order: Catarrhini • Narrow nasal septum • Nostrils open downwards • Dental formula is 2:1:2:3 • Allo-grooming is a very social activity
Superfamilies of Platyrrhini • Ceboidea • [New World Monkeys]
Superfamily: Ceboidea (new world) • “Small” • Marmoset and Tamarins • Arboreal quadrupeds • “Large” • Howler monkeys, Spider monkeys, Capuchin monkey. • Prehensile tail • Suspensory
Superfamilies of Catarrhini • Cercopithecoidea [Old World Monkeys] • Hominoidea [Apes and Humans]
Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea (“Old World Monkeys”) • Arboreal and terrestrial quadrupeds • Tails, but not prehensile • Cheek pouches • Ischial callosities • Bilophodont molars (4 cusps on molars. 2 cusps on front and back joined by ridge.)
Superfamily: Hominoidea • No tails • Brachiation • Y-5 lower molars
Brachiation • Arm hanging and swinging • Wide shoulders • Long arms rel. to body size • Full extension of elbow • Full rotation of shoulder • Wrist mobility • Long 2nd – 5th fingers
Epochs of the Cenozoic [Time Periods] • Holocene 10,000ya – present • Pleistocene 1.8mya – 10,000ya • Pliocene 5mya – 1.8mya • Miocene 25mya – 5mya • Oligocene 35mya – 25mya • Eocene 54mya – 35mya • Paleocene 65mya – 54 mya
Visual Predation Hypothesis: • Moving (adaptive radiation) to trees is a secondary event • Related to development of Angiosperm forests (trees with flowers) • Primates follow insects into arboreal environment
Early Primates • Earliest Primates found (so far) are in the late Paleocene to early Eocene • Adapidae, Omomyidae, and Eosimiidae
Oligocene Primates • Major developments include divergence of the Platyrrhini and Catarrhini ancestors • Divergence of Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea
Miocene Primates • Major developments include the divergence of Hominoidea • Early Hominoidea had tails, were arboreal quadrupeds, but had Y-5 lower molars
Miocene Hominoidea • By the mid-Miocene, three major groups of Hominoidea diverge: • 1. Pliomorphs • 2. Ramamorphs • 3. Dryomorphs
Pliomorphs • Found in Eurasia • Small, ate leaves and fruit, long arms, good brachiators • Most likely ancestral to modern Hylobatidae
Ramamorphs • Primarily found in Eurasia • Wide range of body size (small to big) • Thick molar enamel suggests lots of chewing (hard fruits, tough leaves, etc) • One group, Sivapithecus, possibly a direct ancestor to modern Pongidae
Dryomorphs • Africa and Eurasia • Thinner molar enamel • Ate softer foods than Ramamorphs • Wide range of sizes • Probably ancestral to Panidae and Hominidae
Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea from Suborder Prosimii
Dental formula of 2:1:2:3 Catarrihini
Old World Monkeys Cercopithecoidea
New World Monkeys Ceboidea
Allo-groomers Anthropoidea and Catarrhini
Solitary (live alone) Prosimii/Pongidae
Highly endangered Gorilla gorilla/ Pan paniscus/ Pongo pygmaeus
Found in Eurasia Pliomorphs/ Ramamorphs/ Dryomorphs
Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes
Bonobos Pan paniscus
Alpha Male Pan troglodytes
Alpha Female Pan Paniscus
Ceboidea Platyrrhini
Catarrhini Anthropoidea
Dental Formula of 2:1:3:3 Platyrrhini
F rub genitals with F M mound M Bonobos
Tarsiers color vision-nocturnal-big eyes-twist head 360 deg.
Quadrupeds Gorilla gorilla/Pan troglodytes/Pan paniscus
Quadrumanual (grasping hands and prehensile tail) Pongidae
Created by: 1065480130
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