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JAT Ancient Greeks

6th Gr. JAT Chapter 4 - Early Greeks, Sparta and Athens

Describe the Geography of Greece. The mountainous Balkan Peninsula has hundreds of islands lying offshore, stretching across to Asia.
What body of water is west of Greece? The Ionian Sea.
What body of water is east of Greece? The Aegean Sea.
What body of water is south of Greece? The Mediterranean Sea.
What island and body of water lies southeast of the Balkan Peninsula? The Island of Crete and the Sea of Crete.
How did geography discourage Greek unity? Mountains and seas divided the land and therefore, early greek communities grew up fiercely independent.
How did most ancient greeks make a living? Since they were so surrounded by water, most became fishers, sailors and traders. The mild climate and some areas were good for growing wheat, barley, olives, grapes. Raising sheeps and goats was common in the mountainous terrain.
Who were the Minoans? They were not greeks, but their civilization on the Island of Crete was the first to arise in the region that later became Greece. They earned their living by building ships and trading.
How did the Minoans become a trading civilization? They built ships from oak and cedar trees and sailed as far as Egypt and Syria.
How and when did the Minoan civilization collapse? About 1450 B.C. either undersea earthquakes caused giant waves that washed away Minoan cities, or the Mycenaeans from the mainland invaded and destroyed their cities.
Who built the first Greek kingdoms? The Mycenaeans, originally from Asia, conquered the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C.
Who was Heinrich Schliemann? In the late 1800s, this German discovered one of the walled palaces of Mycenae and named the people of this civilization Mycenaeans.
Who was Arthur Evans? In 1900, this English archeologist uncovered the ruins of a grand palace at Knossos that had been the center of Minoan civilization.
When and what was the Dark Age? Between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. there was less trading, poverty, less craftswork and the people forgot their written language. Many people left the mainland and settled on islands in the Aegean Sea. Others moved west to Turkey, broadening Greek culture.
What caused the Dark Age? Earthquakes and wars destroyed kingdoms and the Mycenaean civilization collapsed by 1100 B.C. Trade slowed down, not enough food to go around, poverty. Population shift spread greek culture.
Who were the Dorians? Greek speaking people who moved south from northern greek mountains bringing iron weapons and farm tools that helped increase farming and trading again.
Where did the Dorians settle? Peloponnesus, which is a large eastern peninsula of mainland Greece; home of Athens.
Where did the Greek alphabet come from? It was based on the alphabet of the Phoenicians, a group of Canaanites of Israel, who were trading parters of the greeks.
How many letters are there in the Greek alphabet? Twenty-four.
How did new colonies affect industry? Colonies traded with each other. With this increased demand for goods, came increased industry and specialization.
Which continents had greek colonies? Italy, France, Spain, North Africa and western Asia
Which islands were home to greek colonies? Corsica, Sicily, Cyprus
What is a Polis? It is a greek city-state.
What is an acroplis? Usually on a hill, it is a gathering place that was used as a safe refuge or religious center.
What is an agora? It is an open area below the acropolis that was a marketplace and a place where people could meet and debate political issues.
What is citizenship? Originating Greece, it means to be a member of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities. Land ownership was at first, a requirement for citizenship.
What rights did Greek citizens have? They chose officials, passed laws, vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. They had a duty to serve in government and fight for their polis as citizen soldiers.
What is a hoplite? An ordinary citizen soldier
How was a Greek city-state different from a city? It has citizens who were involved in governing and military.
What is a tyrant? A person who takes power by force and rules with total authority.
What is an oligarchy? When a few people hold power in government.
What is a democracy? When all citizens share in running a government.
What were two of the most powerful governments in Greece? Sparta had an oligarchy and Athens had a democracy.
Why were tyrants popular in a city-state? Tyrants were able to overthrow the nobles because the common people supported them. They were popular because they built new marketplaces, temples and walls.
What are helots? They were captive workers who were conquered and enslaved by the Dorians who founded Sparta.
Why did Sparta have such a strong military? They trained heavily for war because they thought the helots would someday rebel.
Who was Solon? He helped bring Athens from an oligarchy to a democracy in 594 B.C.
Who was Agamemnon? Mycenaean King who used trickery to win the Trojan War
Who was Peisistratus? A tyrant who seized power in 560 B.C. He won support of the poor by dividing larges estates among landless farmes and loaned money and gave jobs to poor.
What group ruled Athens during the 600s B.C.? Landowning nobles ruled in an oligarchy.
Who was Cleisthenes? He came to power in 508 B.C. and reformed the government by creating a new council of 500 citizens to help the government carry out daily business. Athens then became a democracy.
Created by: ImJaneG