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AP Chapter 12 Upshur

was the center of the Enlightenment., enjoyed a higher standard of living than most neighboring states., had a better informed population than most neighboring states. France in the eighteenth century
was slightly smaller than present-day Texas., was the richest and most influential nation in Europe. France in 1789
a means by which the French king could imprison anyone without benefit of a trial. A lettre de cachet
owned about ten percent of the land in the nation. The First Estate
consisted of approximately 400,000 nobles., owned 20-25 percent of the land., enjoyed exemption from the most burdensome of the direct taxes. the Second Estate
were usually poor commoners., resented the excesses of the upper clergy., identified with the lower classes of society. Parish priests and monks in France
it included merchants, manufacturers, shopkeepers, professional men, intellectuals, and skilled artisans., its members were still excluded from the benefits and privileges of the nobility. the bourgeoisie on the eve of the French Revolution,
enabled the First and Second Estates to combine to outvote the numerically larger Third Estate. The traditional voting system of the Estates General
Who said, "Go and tell your master, that we are here by the will of the people, and that we shall not leave except at the point of a bayonet"? Comte de Mirabeau
reduced the king's authority in accordance with Montesquieu's formula of "separation of powers." In reshaping the government, the Constituent Assembly
In response to the movement known as the "Great Fear," the National Assembly abolished feudal privileges., serfdom., ecclesiastical tithes.
The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen was influenced by he U.S. Declaration of Independence.
law guaranteed right of women to share equally w male heirs, age of majority 21 (the same as men)., women had a voice in the administration of their own property and in the rearing of their children., the law admitted women as witnesses in civil suits. As regards the gains made by women during the Revolution,
The government fixed wages and prices for essential commodities., Imprisonment for debt was abolished., The metric system was established. the reforms instituted by Maximilien Robespierre and his associates
The "Thermidorian Reaction" saw the persecution and execution of the Jacobins.
Napoleon earned the respect and rabid devotion of his soldiers by sharing their hardships in the field. In this he was similar to Alexander the Great. & Julius Caesar.
great curiosity among Europeans about Egypt and the Arab world., discovery of the Rosetta Stone., a lucrative tourist trade in Egypt., the spread of the ideas of the French Revolution and western scientific developments among the Egyptian upper class. results of Napoleon's Egyptian campaign
mandated equality before the law., ensured religious toleration., established the right to choose one's profession. the Code Napoleon
was Napoleon's greatest enemy., thwarted Napoleon's ambitions for conquest in the Near East and India., pursued a policy of naval blockade, which disrupted French overseas trade.was the target of Napoleon's Continental System. Great Britain
allied with France at the height of Napoleon's empire? Russian Empire, Austrian Empire, Spain, Denmark
part of Napoleon's empire or under its control? Spain, Confederation of the Rhine, Kingdom of Italy, Switzerland
The French army of 600,000 men was the largest yet assembled under a single command., The Russians retreated steadily inland, destroying homes and burning crops as they withdrew., Moscow was burned., Napoleon lost more than 500,000 men. statements about Napoleon's Russian campaign of 1812
his accomplishments in domestic reform cannot be matched in any other comparable period in French history. net effect of Napoleon's career,
attended extravagant festivities, operas, and balls., tried to restore conditions as they had been before the French Revolution., returned legitimate monarchs to their thrones., set up a mechanism to crush revolutionary outbreaks at their source. The participants in the Congress of Vienna
participants could not undo impact of the French Rev & Napoleonic Era, formulated settlement helped preserve general peace in Europe for nearly a century ., Its participants opened the door to popular unrest and revolution in individual European nations. statements about the Congress of Vienna
In France in 1830, there was established a limited constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe.
Many Creoles resented political power peninsulars, Some Creoles hoped to create liberal institutions as in USA &revolutionary and Napoleonic France., Some radical Creoles wanted to disestablish the Roman Catholic Church and tax or confiscate its property. the situation in Latin America in the 1820s and 1830s
The revolutionary era in Latin America was launched in Haiti.
Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan aristocrat.
The dark-skinned Virgin of Guadalupe was a factor in the independence movement Mexico
persuaded Pedro to support a break with Portugal and to proclaim an independent state in 1822., Portugal recognized its independence in 1825. Brazil
similarities far outweighed their differences., depended on the export and sale of agricultural and mineral raw materials., industrial output was low. new states of Latin America by the 1830s
The upheavals of 1848 were caused by economic crises., nationalism., liberalism.
a major revolt in 1848. France, Bavaria, Bohemia, Austria
acknowledged free speech, freedom of the press, and security from arbitrary arrest. The constitution of the Second French Republic
Nationalistic ideals were a particular cause of revolutions in 1848 in Germany and Italy.
erfdom was abolished in the Austrian Empire., parliaments were established in all the German states., France adopted universal male suffrage. result of the revolutions of 1848,
In the mid-nineteenth century, the northern and southern regions of the United States disagreed over the nature of federal vs. state authority within the union.
Most Americans did not begin to look to the national government to regulate domestic matters until the twentieth century.
Realpolitik in post 1848 Europe referred to "the politics of reality," centered on the growing power of Prussia.
Who said "The questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches and majority resolutions-therein lay the mistake of 1848 and 1849-but by blood and iron"? Otto von Bismarck
The "Seven Weeks' War" was fought over control of Schleswig and Holstein.
This person was most responsible for the unification of Germany. Otto von Bismarck
Austria-Hungary and Russia had their most important rivalry in the Balkans.
chancellor Metternich of Austria call "a geographic expression"? Italy
turned over his conquests to the Kingdom of Sardinia and retired to the life of a simple farmer. Giuseppe Garibaldi
remained beyond the grasp of the new Kingdom of Italy, because the Pope would not give up his temporal sovereignty over the city., The Pope's control of the city was ensured by French troops sent by Napoleon III.,voted to join Italy by plebiscite. Rome
great powers coveted share Ottoman Empire, block the claims of other would-be heirs., Russia was eager to gain warm water ports and access to the Mediterranean., Great Britain and France feared Russian advances to the Mediterranean. European rivalries and designs regarding the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
Serbia, Rumania, and Montenegro became independent., Austria received the right to administer Bosnia and Herzegovina., Russia gained Bessarabia and several districts in the Caucasus. results of the Treaty of Berlin
The Ausgleich of 1867 transformed the Habsburg Empire into a Dual Monarchy by recognizing which of the following as equal partners with the Germans within the empire? the Magyars
used coercive and often brutal methods to convert the subject peoples to Russian Orthodoxy. Constantine Pobedonostsev, procurator of the Holy Synod,
Under Queen Victoria, Great Britain was transformed politically from oligarchy to democracy.
did much to develop the French economy and industry., helped make France the cultural center of Europe., was successful in his early foreign policy initiatives., joined Great Britain against Russia in the Crimean War. Napoleon III
figurehead president was substituted for a constitutional monarch., All adult males had the vote and elected members to the Chamber of Deputies (lower house)., It crushed the revolt of the radicals in the Paris Commune. the government of the Third French Republic
Italy was a constitutional monarchy whose political situation resembled that of France, The governments of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires were a compromise between democratic and authoritarian principles. European countries in the decades before World War I
Reforms Austrian half of the Austro-Hungarian Empire gave non-Germans rights and culminated in universal manhood suffrage in 1907., In Hungary, the Magyars made no effort to conciliate the Slovaks, Rumanians, Serbs, Croatians, or other subject minorities. European countries in the decades before World War I
groups was incorporated into the Russian Empire during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Poles, Jews, Finns, Turkic Muslims
The party in Russia that insisted on an immediate dictatorship of the proletariat was the Bolsheviks.
Émile Zola is a good source for conditions during the early stages of the Industrial Revolution because of his on-the-spot research and realism.
triggered the most dramatic economic expansion in history., stimulated the growth of population and cities., contributed to a breakdown of the family. Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century
Within forty years of the first practical locomotive, western Europe saw the laying of how many miles of track? 900,000
The first industrialized nation in continental Europe was Belgium.
The process of industrialization in France began during the French Revolution and Napoleonic era.
The country's political division into dozens of separate small states seriously hampered industrial growth from 1800 to 1850., Zollverein established a "common market" of German states in 1818. industrialization in Germany
Political unification in 1871 made the new German Empire a leading industrial nation., By 1900, Germany was overtaking Britain as Europe's most productive industrial power. industrialization in Germany
lack of large, dynamic middle class hampered industrial development., Count Serge Witte, minister finance to tsar Alexander III & Nicholas II, instrumental bringing Russia into industrial age., Between 1885 & 1900 Russia's industrial production tripled. industrialization in Russia
Investment capital, much of it initially supplied by Great Britain, was relatively plentiful., The country had a fast growing population., The country benefited from the vast resources of iron, coal, and petroleum. industrialization in the United States
By 1900, the world's largest industrial producer was the United States.
Samuel Morse tapped out the first telegraph message (from Washington to Baltimore) in 1844.
Technological breakthroughs that heralded some of the mass-produced manufactured products of the twentieth century included the internal combustion engine., new metal alloys for use in tools and machine parts., the canning of food., refrigeration.
were loose alliances between major manufacturers., Members of a cartel sometimes agreed to fix minimum prices., They undercut free competition as effectively as monopolistic industrial combinations. cartels
vigorous & aggressive class in the 19th C was bourgeoisie,men controlled the upper levels middle-class , few women economic independence professions as teaching, nursing, clerical work, writing, & even medicine., middle class wealth & respect Europe. social conditions in late nineteenth-century Europe
In the later nineteenth century, women and children were employed in largest numbers in the textile mills and the garment industry.
It reacted to the abuses of the Industrial Revolution., thinkers advocated abolishing private ownership of the means of production in favor of some form of public ownership socialism
Socialists focussed most of their efforts on this class industrial workers.
Karl Marx thought that the primary determinant of history was economics.
Karl Marx thought this was an "opiate" used by the ruling classes to control the lower classes. religion
lived most of his life in exile and dire poverty in London. Karl Marx
A movement that stressed the empathetic and intuitional faculties over those of logic and reason was romanticism.
poets favored short lyric poems over long epics or philosophical poems., rejected the old-fashioned "poetic" language prescribed by classicists., romantic writing
The heroes of romantic writing tended to be rebels, outcasts, great lovers, and wanderers.
The best example of a romantic writer who felt an almost mystical communion with trees, fields, streams, mountains, and oceans was William Wordsworth.
The famous nineteenth-century German writer who brought the Devil himself on stage in one of his works was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
rejected the classical rules for the arts., used richer colors and deeper shadows than neoclassical artists., aimed for violent motion instead of balance, often in past times and "exotic" locales. romantic painters
felt out of place in the new industrial society., For them, the primacy of the emotions had superseded the glorification of reason., were early explorers of cultural alienation and nonrationalism. romantic artists taken as a whole
nineteenth-century discovery that added to the prestige of the scientific approach to understanding the world? molecular theory, germ theory, cell theory
the human soul no more than an individual personality that would die along with the body? materialism
primarily concerned with how people could know the truth about the world? positivism
This positivist thinker was also known as the founder of modern sociology: Auguste Comte
an example of a realist artist who reacted against romantic "prettifying" of the natural world and insisted on depicting life as it really was? Gustave Courbet
Émile Zola, Charles Dickens, Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoyevsky classified as a realist writer
Two examples of American realist writers are Frank Norris and Hamlin Garland.
This American writer preached freedom, individual conscience, and self-reliance as typically American virtues: Henry David Thoreau & Ralph Waldo Emerson
natural selection explained why humans evolved from lower primates. According to Darwin,
Although they drew heavily on European cultural sources, they achieved their own cultural and intellectual independence., They frequently combined literature with political affairs or even armed struggle. Latin American scholars and writers
This nineteenth-century Argentine poet praised the freedom-loving gaucho, the cowboy of the pampas. José Hernández
Created by: jchavez