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JAT The First Humans

6th Gr. JAT Ch 1 - Early Humans, Mesopotamia Civilization, The First Empires

Describe Paleolithic People They adapted to their environment and invented many tools to help them survive.
What is a Historian? A person who studies and writes about the human past.
What is an Archeologist? A person who hunts for evidence buried in the ground where settlements might once have been.
What is an artifact? Weapons, tools, and other things made by humans.
What is a fossil? Traces of plants or animals that have been preserved in rock.
What is an Anthropologist? A person who studies how humans developed and how they relate to one another.
What are nomads? People who regularly move from place to place.
Who were the Hunter-Gatherers? Paleolithic people were nomads who moved around to find food. Men hunted animals while women gathered berries, nuts and grains.
Name some advances made in the Paleolithic era. Taming fire, spoken language, art, tools, technology.
What is technology, in paleolithic terms. The use of tools and methods to help humans perform tasks.
How are fossils and artifacts different? Fossils are traces of nature, while artifacts are man-made things.
Describe the Neolithic Age. During this time period, people started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.
What does domesticate mean? To tame animals and plants for human use. ie. Animals provide meat, milk, wool and they carried goods and pulled carts.
Why was the farming revolution so important? It greatly affected many areas of life. People could live in one place since they could grow food, leading to growth of communities to villages to towns to cities.
What is Jericho? One of the earliest known communities located in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan and dates back to 8000 B.C.
What is Catal Huyuk? A Neolithic community located in Turkey, home to 6000 people between 6700 and 5700 B.C.
What was specialization in the Neolithic age? Because not everyone was needed for farming, people developed different kinds of skills and jobs. ie. craftspeople, toolmakers
Where did Civilization in Mesopotamia begin? In the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
What are civilizations? They are compex societies that have cities, organized governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system.
Why were river valleys important? They provided good farming conditions, fish, freshwater, ease of travel and trade, so it was an ideal place for civilizations to develop.
Into what body of water do the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow? The Persian Gulf
Where was Mesopotamia? The "land between the rivers" lied in the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent, a curving strip of land that extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.
What is irrigation? The building of dams, channels, walls, waterways and ditches to bring water to the fields for farming.
What is Sumer? A region in southern Mesopotamia where many cities formed by 3000 B.C.
What is a city-state? A city and the land around it that had its own government and was not part of any larger unit. Sumerian city-states often went to war with each other.
What does ziggurat mean? "Mountain of god" or "hill of heaven". Sumerians believed in many gods, and built these grand temples to its chief god.
What is an Artisan? Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth or pottery.
What were the social classes of Sumer? The upper class was made up of kings, priests and government officials. The biggest group, was the middle class,who were artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers. The lower class were enslaved people.
What were some contributions of the Sumerian people? The greatest invention was writing. Irrigation, the wagon wheel, plow, sailboat, mathmatical ideas, and the 12-month calendar were also some very important contributions.
What was the Sumerian writing called? Cuneiform consisted of hundreds of wedge-shaped marks cut into damp clay tablets with a sharp-edged reed.
What is a scribe? Record keepers, usually wealthy men.
What is the world's oldest known work of literature? The Epic of Gilgamesh is a long poem that tells the story of the hero Gilgamesh.
Who was Sargon? In about 2340 B.C. he conquered all of Mesopotamia and set up the world's first empire, a group of many lands under his rule.
Who was Hammurabi? He was a king who ruled the city of Babylon, built in the 1800s B.C. and conquered cities to the north and south extending his Babylonian empire. He was best known for his code of laws.
Who were the Assyrians? Around 900 B.C. they took over Mesopotamia with great military power and organized government and built a vast empire in Mesopotamia by 650 B.C.
What was the capital of the Assyrian Empire? Nineveh, located on the Tigris River.
Who were the Chaldeans? They were descendants of the Babylonian people under Hammurabi who rebuilt the city of Babylon (the richest and largest city), and controlled all of Mesopotamia from 605 B.C. to 562 B.C.
Who was King Nebuchadnezzar? He led the Chalean Empire.
What was the Hanging Gardens? One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. King Nebuchadnezzar built an immense staircase of greenery at his palace for his wife who missed the mountains and plants of her homeland.
What are caravans? Groups of traveling merchants.
What did Chalean astronomers contribute?
Why did the Chaldean Empire fall? In 539 B.C. the Persians conquered Mesopotamia.
Created by: ImJaneG