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CH26

Digestive System

QuestionAnswer
Pancreatic juice is excreted by ___ cells organized into large clusters or ___, along with mucin. ___ is also secreted by the pancreas. acinar, acini, bicarbonate
Most ducts travel and merge in the pancreatic duct that drains into the ___ of the duodenum. papilla
___ is secreted by enteroendocrine cells in intestinal glands to promote secretion of juices. Cholecystokinin
Pancreatic juice secretion is stimulated by the ___ nerve. vagus (PNS)
The ___ ___ is a network of thin ducts that transport bile from liver and gall bladder to duodenum. biliary apparatus
Function of the gall bladder is ___, not ___ of bile. storage, production
Left and right lobes of the liver drain bile into the left and right ___ ___. hepatic ducts
Left and right hepatic ducts merge to form the ___ ___ ___. common hepatic duct
The cystic duct and the common hepatic duct merge to form the ___ ___ ___. common bile duct
The common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct enter the duodenum through the ___ ___. hepatopancreatic ampulla
The structural components of a portal triad are the branches of the ___ ___ vein, ___ artery and ___ ___. hepatic portal, hepatic, bile duct
What is the function of the gallbladder? To ___ and ___ bile. concentrate, store
The function of the pancreatic acini is to secrete the ___ and ___ ___ of the pancreatic juice. mucin, digestive enzymes
The ___ produces bile. liver
A function of the ___ is detoxification of drugs, metabolites and poisons. liver
The liver stores excess ___ and ___. nutrients, vitamins
____ in the ___ synthesize blood plasma proteins like albumins, globulins and proteins for blood clotting. Hepatocytes, liver
The liver contains ___ cells for break down of debris and aged erythrocytes or formed elements. phagocytic
The gall bladder is embedded on the ___ surface of the liver. inferior
The ___ ___ functions to collect and concentrate bile. gall bladder
The ___ ___ connects the gall bladder to the common bile duct. cystic duct
The gall bladder can hold ___ to ___ mL of concentrated bile. 40-60
The gall bladder has three regions: the neck, with a sphincter valve to control flow, the body and the ___. fundus
The pancreas has both ___ and ___ functions. endocrine, exocrine
The pancreas has exocrine functions that involve secreting digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, collectively called ___ ___, into the duodenum via the ___ ___ duct. pancreatic juices, main pancreatic
The head of the pancreas is wide and adjacent to the ___. duodenum
The body of the pancreas is elongated and projects toward the left lateral ___ ___. abdominal wall
The tail of the pancreas tapers as it approaches the ___. spleen
In the liver, there are several ___ ___ around the central vein. portal triads
The portal triads in the liver that are located around the central vein are called ___ ___. hepatic sinusoids
Hepatic sinusoids are lined with ___ cells (kupffer cells) which are phagocytic cells. reticuloendothelial
Hepatocytes absorb ___ and form ___ that assists with the chemical digestion of fats. nutrients, bile
Bile is released through ___ ___ to the bile duct in the portal triad.. bile canaliculus
The liver is located in the ___ quadrant of the abdomen. right
The liver weighs about ___ to ___kg. 1 to 2
The liver is comprised of four incompletely separated lobes: right, left, ___ and ___ caudate, quadrate
The right lobe of the liver is separated from the left lobe by the ___ ___ that secures the liver to the abdomen wall. falciform ligament
The round ligament in the liver is the remnant of the ___ ___ vein. fetal umbilical
The caudate lobe of the liver is adjacent to the ___ ___ ___. inferior vena cava
The quadrate lobe of the liver is adjacent to the ___ ___. gall bladder
A connective tissue capsule forms septa that partition the liver into ___ ___. hepatic lobules
___ ___ are the functional units of the liver. Hepatic lobules
Hepatic lobules contain cells called ___. hepatocytes
At the periphery of each lobule of the liver there are several ___ ___. portal triads
The liver has dual blood supply. True or false true
The ___ ___vein carries blood to the liver from the GI tract, spleen and pancreas. It is rich in nutrients but poor in ___. hepatic portal, oxygen
The ___ ___ ___ splits into left and right hepatic arteries and is well oxygenated. hepatic artery proper
The hepatic portal vein and the hepatic artery proper mix in the ___ ___. hepatic lobules
Numerous hepatic veins drain into the ___ ___ ___. inferior vena cava
The descending colon originates at the left ___ ___. It is found along the ___ side of the abdomen. colic flexure, left
The descending colon makes contact with the iliac fossa and terminates into the ___ ___. sigmoid colon
The shape of the sigmoid colon resembles the letter S. It originates at the ___ ___ and enters the pelvic cavity. Then it turns inferomedially and is suspended by the ___ ___. sigmoid flexure, sigmoid mesentery
The ___ ___ terminates as the rectum. sigmoid colon
Muscular tube that readily expands to store accumulated fecal material prior to defecation is the ___. rectum
Three thick, transverse folds of the rectum, called ___ ___ , ensure that fecal material is retained during the passage of gas. rectal valves
The ___ terminates at the anal canal. rectum
The ___ ___ is the terminal few centimeters of the large intestine. anal canal
The anal canal passes through an opening in the ___ ___ muscles of the pelvic floor. levator ani
Anal ___ line the internal surface of the anal canal. columns
Anal sinuses secrete ___ for lubrication during defecation by the pressure exerted by feces. mucin
Internal and external anal sphincters open and close the anal canal during ___. defecation
The large intestine is lined with ___ ___epithelium and goblet cells, which secrete ___ to lubricate the fecal material. simple columnar, mucin
Longitudinal muscle of the large intestine wall is incomplete, forming bundles called ___ ___. teniae coli
The teniae coli bunch up the large intestines into many sacs, collectively called ___. haustra
In the large intestine, extending off the external surface of the haustra, are lobules of fat called ___ appendices or ___ appendages. omental, epiploic
The ingestion of food increases peristaltic movements in the ileum, opening the ileocecal valve, called ___ reflex. gastroileal
The gastroileal reflex produces more: ___ movements, ___ churning and ___ movements. peristaltic, haustral, mass
Peristaltic movements are weak and ___. sluggish
Haustral churning: Distention with feces produces contraction for passage to the next ___ by relfex. haustra
Mass movements are powerful, peristaltic contractions involving the ___ ___ to propel feces to the rectum. They occur 2-3 times a day after a meal and are called ___ reflex. teniae coli, gastrocolic
The accessory digestive organs include the following organs that facilitate chemical digestive activities of the GI tract: ___, ___ ___, ___ and ___ ___. liver, gall bladder, pancreas, biliary apparatus
The duodenum is c-shaped and located in the ___ ___ quadrant. upper right
The duodenum becomes continuous with the jejunum at the ___ ___. duodenojejunal flexure (midline)
The duodenum is connected to the liver by the ___ ___. lesser omentum
The ___ ___ ___ is the site where bile and pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum. major duodenal papilla
Middle portion of the small intestine is the ___. jejunum
Primary region for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption is the ___. jejunum
The jejunum is suspended by the ___ ___. mesentery proper
The last segment of the small intestine is the ___. ileum
The distal end of the ileum terminates at the ileocecal valve, a sphincter that controls the entry of materials into the ___ ___. large intestine
The ileum is suspended by the ___ ___. mesentery proper
Internally, the mucosal and submucosal tunics of the small intestine are thrown into folds called the ___ folds or ___ ___. They help increase surface area of absorption and delay passage. circular, plicae circulares
Circular folds, or plicae circulares, are more numerous in the ___ and ___ and least numerous in the ___. duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Microscopic fingerlike projections called ___ can be seen on surface of circular folds and microscopic fingerlike projections called ___ can be seen on surface of the ___. villi, microvilli, villi
Each villi in the small intestine contains an arteriole, a ___, and ___ for absorption. venule, capillaries
In the small intestine, ___ at the center of the villus, are responsible for absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins, too large to be absorbed by capillaries. lacteals
Salivary glands produce and ___ saliva into the oral cavity. secrete
Saliva’s functions: ___ ingested materials to become a bolus, moistens, cleanses, and ___ the oral cavity, ___ digestion of ingested materials, antibacterial action containing ___, ___ materials so taste receptors on tongue can be stimulated. moistens, lubricates, chemical, lysozyme, dissolves
Three pairs of salivary glands are located external to the oral cavity: ___, ___ and ___ glands parotid, submandibular, sublingual
The largest of the three salivary glands is the ___ glands. They are located anterior and inferior to the ___. parotid, ear
The ___ salivary glands secrete 25–30% of total saliva. parotid
Chewed food mixed with saliva is a ___. bolus
Bolus processed by the stomach is ___. chyme
The digestive system is composed of two separate categories of organs: ___ and ___. digestive, accessory
Digestive organs collectively make up the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also called the digestive tract or the ___ ___. alimentary canal
Digestive organs are: ___ cavity, ___, ___, ___, small intestine, ___ ___. oral, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine
___ ___ organs assist the GI tract with digestion. Accessory digestive
Accessory digestive organs include: ___, ___, ___ glands, ___, ___ ___ and ___. teeth, tongue, salivary, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
The GI tract organs are as follows: ___ ___, pharynx, ___, ___, ___ ___ and ___ ___. oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
The accessory digestive organs are not part of the long GI tube, but often develop as outgrowths of that tube. They are as follows: ___, ___, ___ ___, ___, ___ ___, ___. teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
___ is the introduction of solid and liquid material into the oral cavity, the1st step in digesting. Ingestion
___ is the breakdown of large food items into smaller structures and molecules. Digestion
___ digestion physically breaks down pieces. Mechanical
___ digestion breaks down of food using enzymes. Chemical
Movement of materials through the tract is called ___. propulsion
Muscular contraction is also called ___. peristalsis
The teeth are collectively known as the ___. dentition
A tooth has an exposed crown, a constricted neck, and one or more roots that fit into dental alveoli (sockets in the ___ ___ of the ___ and the ___). alveolar processes, maxillae, mandibule
Periodontal ligaments bind roots to the ___ ___ to form the gomphosis joint. alveolar process
___ forms the primary mass of the tooth. It is harder than bone. Dentin
Each tooth root is covered with ___. cementum
The external surface of the dentin is covered with a layer of ___ (hardest substance of the body) that forms the ___ of the tooth. enamel, crown
The center of the tooth is a cavity that contains connective tissue called ___. pulp
A root canal opens into the connective tissue through an opening called the ___ ___. Blood vessels and nerves pass through this opening and are housed in the ___. apical foramen, pulp
The mesial surface of teeth is the one closest to the ___. midline
The ___ surface of teeth is farthest from the midline. distal
The buccal surface of teeth is adjacent to the ___. cheek
The ___ surface of teeth is adjacent to the lip. labial
The lingual surface of teeth is the one facing the ___. tongue
Superior and inferior surfaces of teeth meet at the ___ surface. occlusal
___ teeth erupt between 6–30 months, ___ in number, and often called milk teeth. Deciduous, 20
Permanent teeth replace deciduous teeth, ___ in number. Anteriorly placed teeth tend to appear first. ___ teeth are last to appear. 32, Wisdom
___—most anteriorly placed teeth, shaped like chisels, and have a single root Incisors
___—teeth that are posterolateral to the incisors, pointed tips for puncturing and tearing Canines
___—teeth posterolateral to canines, have flat crowns with prominent ridges called cusps for crushing and grinding Premolars
___—thickest and most posterior teeth, also adapted for crushing and grinding of ingested materials Molars
There are three phases of swallowing: ___, ___ and ___. voluntary, pharyngeal, esophageal
Bolus is formed and pushed superiorly against the hard palate by the tongue. Projected towards the oropharynx. Which swallowing phase is this? voluntary phase
Bolus in the oropharynx, swallowing reflex begins. Soft palate and uvula elevate to block airway passage. Larynx elevates towards epiglottis. Which swallowing phase is this? pharyngeal phase
Involuntary. Bolus passes through esophagus (5-8sec) into the stomach. Which swallowing phase is this? esophageal phase
The stomach is in the upper left quadrant of abdomen, inferior to the ___. diaphragm
The stomach continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of the ___. bolus
The bolus eventually is processed into a pasty soup called ___. chyme
The stomach possesses how many layers of muscle? 3
The stomach secretes ___ and ___. acids, enzymes
The stomach is composed of four regions: the ___, ___, ___ and ___. cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
The stomach’s cardia is the opening at the ___ ___. cardiac orifice
The stomach’s fundus is superior to the ___ opening and is adjacent to the ___. esophageal, diaphrahgm
The largest region of the stomach is it’s ___. body
The stomach’s pylorus is divided into the pyloric ___ and the pyloric ___. antrum, canal
The ___ ___ is the stomach’s opening with the duodenum of the small intestine. pyloric orifice
The ___ ___ is the thick ring of circular smooth muscle that surrounds the pyloric orifice. pyloric sphincter
The inferior border of the stomach is the ___ curvature and the superior border is the ___ curvature. greater, lesser
The internal surface of the stomach is thrown into folds called ___ ___ or ___. gastric folds, rugae
The large intestine is comprised of the following structures: ___, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ and ___ ___. cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anal canal
First part of large intestine is the ___. cecum
The ___ is in the large intestine, it’s a blind sac located in lower right quadrant of abdomen. cecum
The cecum extends inferiorly from the ___ ___. It represents the junction between the small intestine and large intestine. ileocecal valve
The vermiform appendix is lined with ___ nodules. lymphatic
The ascending colon originates at the ___ ___ and extends along the right side of abdomen. ileocecal valve
The ascending colon is retroperitoneal. true or false true
As the ascending colon approaches the inferior border of the liver, it makes a 90-degree turn toward the left side of the abdominal cavity; this bend in the colon is called the ___ ___ ___ or ___ ___. right colic flexure, hepatic flexure
The ___ ___ originates at the right colic flexure and approaches the spleen in the upper left abdominal quadrant. transverse colon
The transverse colon is suspended by the ___ ___. transverse mesocolon
The transverse colon makes a 90-degree turn inferiorly at the spleen; this bend in the colon is called the ___ ___ ___ or ___ ___. left colic flexure, splenic flexure
The ___ ___ ___ and ligamentum venosum form the inferior vertical parts of the liver. inferior vena cava
In the liver, the ___ ___ and round ligament form the superior vertical parts. gall bladder
The ___ ___ in the liver represents the horizontal crossbar; this is where the blood vessels (hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery proper) and lymphatic vessels, bile ducts, and nerves enter and leave the liver. porta hepatis
The small intestine consists of three specific segments (from proximal to distal from the stomach): ___ (___cm), ___ (___m), ___ (___m) duodenum, 25m (10 inches), jejunum, 2.5m (7.5 feet), ileum, 3.6m (10.8 feet)
The small intestine has intestinal glands or ___ of ___. They are enteroendocrine cells that release___, ___, gastric inhibitory peptide (prolong time of stomach emptying) and goblet cells. crypts, Lieberkuhn, secretin, cholecystokinin
Brunner glands in the small intestine release ___ mucus to protect ___ from acids. alkaline, duodenum
The large intestine forms a three-sided perimeter around the centrally located ___ ___. small intestine
The diameter is of the large intestine is ___ cm vs. 2.5 cm of the small intestine. 6.5
The ___ intestine absorbs fluids and ions and compacts undigestible wastes and solidifies them into feces. large
The large intestine absorbs a large/small amount of nutrients. very small
The ___ ___ stores the feces until defecation (expulsion of the feces). large intestine
5 types of secretory cells form gastric epithelium: ___ ___ cells, ___ ___ cells, ___ cells, ___ cells, ___ cells. surface mucous, mucous neck, parietal, chief, enteroendocrine
Surface mucous cells secrete ___ to prevent ulceration. mucin
Mucous neck cells secrete ___ ___ to maintain acidic conditions. acidic mucin
Parietal cells, HCl secreted for chemical digestion of proteins, secretes ___ ___ to absorb B12 in the ileum. intrinsic factor
Chief cells secrete ___ ___ to be activated by the HCl into pepsin who digests denatured proteins. inactive pepsinogen
Enteroendocrine cells secrete ___ that enters blood to stimulate secretion of chief and parietal cells. gastrin
The ___ ___ finishes the chemical digestion process and is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients (90%). small intestine
Ingested materials spend at least ___ hours in the small intestine while chemical digestion and absorption are completed. 12
The ___ ___ is about 6 meters (20 feet) long in an unembalmed cadaver but much shorter in a living individual due to muscle tone. small intestine
The small intestine extends from the ___ to cecum of large intestine. pylorus
Blood supply and innervation of the small intestine in the ___ ___ artery and plexus. superior mesenteric
The wall of the stomach is lined by ___ ___ epithelium although little absorption occurs in the stomach. simple columnar
The stomach lining is indented by numerous depressions called ___ ___ which have gastric gland openings. gastric pits
The stomach lining does not contain goblet cells, but ___ ___ cells. surface mucous
The muscularis of the stomach has 3 layers: ___ ___ layer, middle circular layer and outer ___ layer. It has 3 layers ddue to the fact that they need to churn and mix ___. inner oblique, longitudinal, bolus
Along and at the base of the gastric pits are openings of gastric glands that secrete products into the ___. stomach
Propulsion of food along the GI tube involves two types of movement: ___ and ___ peristalsis, segmentation
___ is the ripple-like wave of muscular contraction that forces material to move further along the GI tract. Peristalsis
___is the churning and mixing of material helping to disperse the material and mix it and combine it with digestive organ secretions. Segmentation
A tubular passageway that conducts ingested materials from the pharynx to the stomach. esophagus
The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the esophageal ___ as it connects to the stomach. hiatus
The esophagus is approximately __ cm long, coursing anterior to the vertebral bodies. 25
About 1.5 cm of the esophagus is in the abdomen prior to changing into the ___. stomach
The esophagus is made of thick ___ ___ ___ epithelium. nonkeratinized stratified squamous
The esophagus has a thick submucosa, abundant elastic fibers and abundant ___ glands. mucous
The muscular is of the esophagus, it has an inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer. Contains a blend of ___ and ___ fibers. skeletal, smooth
The outermost layer of the esophagus is the ___. adventitia
The esophagus has two sphincters: ___ and ___ esophageal sphincter superior, inferior
Superior esophageal sphincter is located at the junction of the pharynx and the esophagus; it closes during ___ preventing ___ from entering the GI tract. inhalation, air
The inferior/superior esophageal sphincter is located at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach; along with the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, prevents materials from regurgitating from the stomach into the esophagus. inferior
Three unpaired arteries supply the abdominal GI tract: the ___ ___, ___ ___ artery and ___ ___ artery celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
Branches travel within the GI tunics and mucosa contains capillaries with ___ endothelial cells. fenestrated
Lacteals are present in villi of the ___ ___. small intestine
Lymph ducts transport lymph to the ___ ___, which drain into the thoracic duct. cisterna chyli
Lymphatic structures called MALT (mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue) are found in the small intestine and appendix. These aggregate nodules are called ___ ___. Peyer patches
Initial site of mechanical and chemical digestion is the ___ ___. oral cavity
The oral cavity is lined with ___ ___ ___ epithelium lining for abrasive activities and moistened by saliva. nonkeratinized stratified squamous
Space between the cheeks or lips and gums in the oral cavity is the ___. vestibule
Oral cavity proper: Central to the alveolar processes of ___ and ___. mandibule, maxillae
The oral cavity contains the following: ___, ___, ___, ___, ___ glands, and ___ cheeks, lips, palate, tongue, salivary, teeth
Cheeks form the lateral wall of the oral cavity and are comprised mainly of the ___ muscles. buccinator
Lips are lined with ___ ___ ___ epithelium. keratinized stratified squamous
The ___ (gums) cover the alveolar processes of the teeth. gingivae
The internal surface of the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a thin, midline mucosa fold called the ___ ___. labial frenulum
The ___ forms the roof of the oral cavity. palate
Extending from the soft palate posteriorly is the___, which elevates during swallowing and closes off the posterior entrance to the ___. uvula ,nasopharynx
The ___ represent the opening from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. fauces
The fauces are bounded laterally by paired muscular folds: ___ and ___ arches. The ___ tonsils are housed here. palatoglossal, palatopharyngeal, palatine
Superior surface of the tongue is covered by ___ papillae
The tongue manipulates and mixes ingested materials during chewing and helps compress the partially digested materials into a ___. bolus
A bolus is a globular mass of ___ materials that can be more easily swallowed. ingested
The wall of the GI tract from the esophagus to the large intestine is composed of 4 concentric tunics. From deep (in contact with ingested materials) to superficial (external covering) they are: ___, ___, ___, and ___ or serosa mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, adventitia
The abdominal GI tract mucosa has 3 components: superficial epithelium, an underlying areolar connective tissue called the ___ ___ and a thin layer of smooth muscle, called the ___ ___. lamina propria, muscularis mucosae
The submucosa in the wall of the abdominal GI tract is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It’s components include: ___ ducts, ___ ___, ___, ___-___ glands lymphatic, blood vessels, nerves, mucin-secreting
The nerves and their associated ganglia are referred to as the ___ ___ plexus or ___ plexus. submucosal nerve, Meissner plexus
Secretion in the digestive system includes producing and releasing mucin or fluids like ___, ___ and digestive ___. acid, bile, enzymes
Absorption in the digestive system means the passive or active movement of ___, digestion products, ___ and water across the epithelium into GI tract, blood vessels and ___. electrolytes, vitamins, lymphatics
The inferior surface of the tongue attaches to the floor of the oral cavity by a thin, midline mucous membrane called the ___ ___. lingual frenulum
The ___ duct runs parallel to the zygomatic arch and pierces the buccinator muscle just opposite, opening near the second upper molar. parotid
The parotid salivary glands secrete ___. amylase
The ___ salivary glands reside inferior to the body of the mandible. submandibular
The ___ glands produce the majority of the saliva: (60–70%) submandibular
A submandibular duct transports saliva from each gland through a ___ in the floor of the mouth on the lateral sides of the ___ ___. papilla, lingual frenulum
Sublingual salivary glands are ___ to the tongue and internal to the oral cavity. inferior
Each gland extends multiple tiny sublingual ducts that open onto the inferior surface of the oral cavity just posterior to the ___ ___ ___. submandibular duct papilla
___ ___ glands contribute only 3–5% of total saliva. sublingual salivary
Two types of secretory cells are found in salivary glands: ___ cells and ___ cells mucous, serous
Salivary mucous cells secrete mucin, which forms mucus upon ___. hydration
Salivary serous cells secrete a watery fluid containing ions,___, and salivary ___. lysozyme, amylase
Submandibular and sublingual glands are innervated by CN ___. VII
Salivary parotid gland innervated by CN ___. IX
The ___ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems. pharynx
Three skeletal muscle pairs of ___ ___ (superior, middle, and inferior) form the wall of the pharynx and participate in swallowing. pharyngeal constrictors
When pharyngeal constrictors constrict the ___ closes. epiglottis
CN___ innervates most pharyngeal muscles. X
Branches of ___ ___ arteries supply the pharynx. external carotid
___ ___ veins drain the pharynx. Internal jugular
Abdominopelvic cavity is covered with moist ___ membranes. serous
The ___ peritoneum lines the inside surface of the body wall. parietal
The ___ peritoneum covers the surface of internal organs within the cavity. visceral
Peritoneal cavity is ___ space between layers. potential
In salivary glands, parasympathetic innervation ___ secretion. stimulates
In salivary glands, sympathetic innervation produces ___ amounts of secretion. normal
Organs that are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum are called ___ organs. They include the ___ and most of the small intestines. intraperitoneal, stomach
Organs that lie in direct contact with posterior abdominal & pelvic walls & are only covered on anterolateral surfaces with visceral peritoneum: ___ organs. Examples are the ___, ascending and descending colon of the large intestines, and the ___. retroperitoneal, pancreas, rectum
___ are folds of peritoneum that support and stabilize intraperitoneal GI tract organs. Blood vessels, ___ vessels, and ___ are sandwiched between the two folds and supply the digestive organs. Mesenteries, lymphatic, nerves
The mesentery called the ___ ___ extends inferiorly like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and covers most of the abdominal organs. greater omentum
The lesser omentum connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal end of the ___ to the ___. duodenum, liver
The mesentery ___ suspends most of the small intestines from the posterior abdominal wall. proper
The ___ is a peritoneal fold that attaches parts of the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. mesocolon
The abdominal cavity ___ ___ is a fold that attaches one organ to another, or an organ to the anterior or lateral abdominal wall. peritoneal ligament
Examples of peritoneal ligaments are the ___ ligament: superior surface of liver to the diaphragm and the ___ ligament: attaches liver to anterior internal abdominal wall. coronary, falciform
The muscularis has two layers of smooth muscle: ___ ___ layer (constricts the lumen and forms sphincters when thickened) and ___ ___ layer (shortens the tube) inner circular, outer longitudinal
The esophagus has a mix of both ___ and ___ muscle. smooth, skeletal
The stomach contains three layers of ___ muscle. smooth
Nerve fibers and associated ganglia between the two layers of the muscularis muscles are called the mysenteric nerve plexus or the ___ plexus. Auerbach
The outermost layer of the tunics of the abdominal GI tract can be made of 2 types: adventitia and areolar
Adventitia is connective tissue with dispersed collagen and elastic fibers found on ___ organs. retroperitoneal
Serosa is the same as adventitia but covered by visceral peritoneum on the ___ organs. intraperitoneal
Nerves of the digestive system are both autonomic motor and sensory; the three autonomic plexuses follow the distribution of the unpaired artery of the same name: ___ plexus, ___ ___ plexus, and ___ ___ plexus. celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric
The ___ plexus contains sympathetic axons (T5-T9) and parasympathetic axons (vagus). celiac
The superior mesenteric plexus contains sympathetic axons (T8-T12) and parasympathetic axons (vagus).
Inferior mesenteric plexus contains sympathetic axons (L1-L2), and parasympathetic axons (pelvic splanchnic nerves).
___ innervation promotes activity, gland secretion, peristalsis, and relaxes sphincters. Causes vasodilation for more blood flow. Parasympathetic
___ innervation inhibits digestive activity. Sympathetic
Created by: Falicon