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Chp. 1 the body

Chp. 1 Organization and general plan of the body

_______ is the study of body structures which includes size, shape, composition and even coloration. anatomy
physiology is the study of how the body _______. functions
pathophysiology is the study of _________ of functioning. disorders
with __________ iron in the diet, there will not be enough iron in the hemoglobin of RBC's resulting in iron deficiency. insufficient
what is disease? a disorder or disruption of normal body functioning.
_________ are the procedures used to identify the cause and nature of a persons illness. diagnosis
the human body is organized into __________ and _________ levels of increasing complexity. structural, functional
the body is a container of __________. chemicals
the chemicals in the body can be divided up in to two categories. what are they? inorganic chemicals and organic chemicals
inorganic chemicals are usually ______ __________ made of one or two elements other than carbon. simple molecules
name two examples of inorganic chemicals? water and oxygen
organic chemicals are often very _________ and ____________ contain the elements carbon and hydrogen. complex, always
the __________ living units of structure and function are cells. smallest
the human body consists of more than _____ (number) different types of cells. 200
a _______ is a group of cells with similar structure and function. tissue
groups of _________ cells work together to perform a specific function. similar
_________ tissue over or line the body surfaces. epithelial
the outer layer of skin and ______ _______ are examples of epithelial tissue. sweat glands
connective tissues __________ and _________ parts of the body. connect, support
some connective tissue ________ or stores materials. transports
muscles tissues are specialized for ___________, which brings about movement. contraction
_______ tissues are specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that regulate body functions. nerve
an ______ is a group of tissues precisely arranged to accomplish specific function. organ
give three examples of organs. liver, lungs, kidneys
the stomach is lined with ________ tissue that secretes gastric juice for digestion. epithelial
nerve tissue carries ________ that increase or decrease contractions in the stomach. impulses
an _______ ______ is a group of organs that all contribute to a particular function. organ system
there are 11 organ systems. what are they? integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive.
integumentary is a _________ to pathogens and chemicals. barrier
_________ supports the body skeletal
muscular moves the _________. skeleton
nervous interprets _________ info and regulates body functions. sensory
____________ regulates body functions by means of hormones and day to day metabolism. endocrine
circulatory transports ________ and nutrients. oxygen
_________ returns tissue fluid to the blood and destroys _______ that enter the body to provide immunity. lymphatic, pathogens
___________ exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood. respiratory
digestive ___________ food to simple _______ that can be absorbed and used by the body. changes, chemicals
________ removes ______ from the blood and reulates volume and pH of blood and tissue fluid. urinary, waste
reproductive produces _______ or _______ and in women, provides a site for the developing fetus. eggs, sperm
metabolism is all of the ___________ ____________ and physical processes that take place withing the body. chemical reactions
metabolism includes ________, ___________, reacting and __________. growing, repairing, reproducing
metabolism means ______. change
__________ rate is the speed at which the body produces energy and heat. metabolic
a person who is in good health may be in a state of ___________. homeostasis
homeostasis reflects the ______ of the body to ________ a relatively stable metabolism. ability, maintain
what is negative feedback mechanism? a control system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus, thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again.
the hormone __________ regulates the metabolic rate of the body. thyroxine
as metabolic rate ___________, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland secrete hormones to stimulate the thyroid gland. decreases
what is positive feedback mechanism? a control system that requires an external even to stop or reverse the stimulus.
__________ stimulates contraction of the uterine muscle, which causes more stretching of the cervix to enable child birth. oxytocin
femoral always refers to the ______. thigh
________ always refers to the upper arm. brachial
pulmonary refers to the _______. lungs
when describing relative locations, the body is always assumed to be in ___________ position. anatomic
what is anatomic position? standing upright facing forward, arms at the sides with palms forward and the feet slightly apart.
the body has two major cavities. what are they? dorsal and ventral
the ______ cavity contains the __________________ (CNS) and consists of the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity. dorsal, central nervous system
the membranes that line the spinal cavity are called __________. meninges
the ventral cavity consists of two compartments. what are they? the thoracic and abdominal cavity
what does the thoracic cavity include? the heart and lungs.
the membranes of the thoracic cavity are called __________ ___________. pleural membranes
the heart has its own set of membranes called __________ membranes. pericardial
what does the abdominal cavity include? the liver, stomach and intestines
the membranes of the abdominal cavity are called the _____________ which covers the entire abdominal wall and the ____________ which folds around and covers the outer surfaces of the abdominal organs.. peritoneum and mesentary
the _______ cavity is inferior to the abdominal cavity. pelvic
a _____ is an imaginary flat surface that separates two portions of the body or organ. plane
________ section is a plane from side to side which seperates the body into front and back portions. frontal
_____ section is from front to back seperating the body into right and left. sagittal
cross sectional is a plane ____________ to the long axis of an organ. perpendicular
___________ section is a plane along the oong axis of an organ. longitudinal
transverse section is a _________plane that seperates the body into upper and lower portions. horizontal
there are 4 quadrants of the abdomen. what are they? right upper quadrant, left upper, right lower and left lower quadrants
the abdomen can also be separated into 9 regions. what are they? right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric and left iliac regions
Created by: long2010