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APII Digestion

Digestion

QuestionAnswer
Function of the digestive system include ingest food, ____ingested material, digest the material into smaller usable components, ____the necessary digested nutrients into the____, expel waste. transport, absorb, bloodstream
Chewed food mixed with saliva. Bolus
Bolus processed by the stomach. Chyme
The digestive system is composed of two separate categories of organs: ____organs, ____digestive organs Digestive, Accessory
Digestive organs collectively make up the GI tract, also called the digestive tract or the____ ____. alimentary canal
Oral cavity, ____, esophagus, stomach, ____ ____and large intestine are all digestive organs. pharynx, small intestine
Accessory digestive organs ____the GI tract with digestion. assist
Accessory organs: Teeth, ____, salivary glands, ____, gallbladder and ____. tongue, liver, pancreas
Accessory digestive organs are not part of the long GI tube, but often develop as ____of that tube. outgrowths
Digestive System Functions are ingestion, digestion, ____, peristalsis, ____, absorption, elimination of waste propulsion, secretion
Ingestion is the introduction of solid and liquid material into the ____ ____. oral cavity
1st step in digesting is ____. ingestion
Digestion is the breakdown of large food items into ____structures and____. smaller, molecules
Mechanical digestion ____breaks down pieces. physically
Chemical digestion is breaking down of food using____. enzymes
____is the movement of materials through the GI tract. Propulsion
Peristalsis is muscular ____. contraction
GI tract function ____is the production and releasing of mucin or fluids like acid, bile and digestive enzymes. secretion
_____ is Passive or active movement of electrolytes, digestion products, vitamins and water across the epithelium into GI tract blood vessels and lymphatics. Absorption
____ is wasting of undigested products as feces by defecation. Elimination of waste
Propulsion of food along the GI tube involves two types of movement_____ and ____ peristalsis, segmentation
____ is the ripple-like wave of muscular contraction that forces material to move further along the GI tract. Peristalsis
____ is the churning and mixing of material helping to disperse the material and mix it and combine it with digestive organ secretions. Segmentation
____ ____ is the initial site of mechanical and chemical digestion. Oral Cavity
Oral cavity is made of ____ ____ squamous epithelium lining for abrasive activities. Nonkeratinized stratified
Oral cavity ____ space is between the cheeks or lips and gums. vestibule
Oral cavity proper is central to the alveolar processes of____ and _____. mandibule, maxillae
Oral cavity contains the following structural features: cheeks, ____, and palate, tongue, ____ ____, teeth lips, salivary glands
Cheeks form the ____wall of the oral cavity and are comprised mainly of the ____ muscles. lateral, buccinator
The cheeks end ____ as the lips. anteriorly
Lips are lined with ____ ____ squamous epith. keratinized stratified
The gingivae (gums) cover the ____ ___ of the teeth. alveolar processes
The internal surface of the upper and lower lips are attached to the gingivae by a thin, midline mucosa fold called the____ ____ . labial frenulum
The ____ forms the roof of the oral cavity. palate
The ____ ___- ____ of the palate is called the hard palate because it is comprised of bone. The ____ ___-___ of the palate is soft and muscular and is called the soft palate. anterior two-thirds, posterior one-third
Extending from the soft palate posteriorly is the____, which elevates during swallowing and closes off the posterior entrance to the nasopharynx. uvula
The ____ represent the opening from the oral cavity to the oropharynx. fauces
The fauces are bounded laterally by paired muscular folds: ____ arch, ____ arch palatoglossal, palatopharyngeal
The superior surface of the tongue is covered by ____. papillae
The tongue manipulates and mixes ingested materials during chewing and helps compress the partially digested materials into a____. bolus
A ____is a globular mass of ingested materials that can be more easily swallowed. bolus
The inferior surface of the tongue attaches to the floor of the oral cavity by a thin, midline mucous membrane called the____ ____. lingual frenulum
____glands produce and secrete saliva into the oral cavity. Salivary
Saliva’s functions: ____ingested materials, moistens, cleanses, and lubricates the structures of the____ ____, chemical digestion, ____action containing lysozyme, dissolves materials so that ____ ____can be stimulated. moistens, oral cavity, antibacterial, taste receptors
Three pairs of salivary glands are located external to the oral cavity:____, submandibular, sublingual glands parotid
Salivary Glands produce ____/day, slightly acidic, ___% water and 0.5% solutes, contains Ions, ___, lysosome, mucin, salivary amylase 1-1.5L, 99.5, ImG A
Parotid Salivary Glands, Largest of the three salivary glands, Located anterior and inferior to the ear, Secrete ___% of total saliva, Parotid duct runs parallel to the zygomatic arch and pierces the ____muscle just opposite. 25–30, buccinator
Submandibular Salivary Glands: Reside inferior to the body of the mandible, Produce the majority of the saliva ____ % 60–70%
A submandibular duct transports saliva from each gland through a papilla in the floor of the mouth on the lateral sides of the____ ____ lingual frenulum
Sublingual Salivary Glands: ____to the tongue and internal to the oral cavity, Contribute only 3–5% of total saliva Inferior
Two types of secretory cells are found in salivary glands, ____ and ____ cells Serous cells, Mucous cells
Mucous cells in salivary glands secrete mucin, which forms ___upon hydration mucus
Serous cells in salivary glands secrete a watery fluid containing___, ____, and salivary amylase ions, lysozyme
Submandibular and sublingual glands innervated by CN ____. VII
Paroid gland innervated by CN ___ IX
Parasympathetic stimulates ____in the GI tract. secretion
The teeth are collectively known as the ____. dentition
A tooth has an exposed crown, a constricted neck, and one or more roots that fit into dental ____. alveoli
____ligaments bind roots to the alveolar process to form the gomphosis joint. Periodontal
____forms the primary mass of the tooth. It is harder than bone. Dentin
Each tooth root is covered with _____. cementum
The external surface of the dentin is covered with a layer of ____that forms the crown of the tooth. enamel
The center of the tooth is a pulp cavity that contains ____ ____called pulp. connective tissue
A root canal opens into the connective tissue through an opening called the____ ____. Blood vessels and nerves pass through this opening and are housed in the pulp. apical foramen
Mesial tooth surface is ____to the midline. closest
Distal tooth surface is farthest from the____. midline
____tooth surface is adjacent to the cheek. Buccal
Labial tooth surface is adjacent to the ___. lip
____tooth surface is facing the tongue. Lingual
Occlusal tooth surface is where superior and inferior surfaces ____. meet
Two sets of teeth develop and erupt in a normal lifetime _____ and _____ teeth deciduous and permanent teeth
Deciduous teeth erupt between ____months, 20 in number, and are often called ____teeth 6–30, milk
Permanent teeth replace the deciduous teeth and are ___in number. ____placed teeth tend to appear first. 32, Anteriorly
The _____ teeth are most anteriorly placed, shaped like chisels, and have a single root Incisors
Canines are posterolateral to the incisors, pointed tips for ____ and ____ puncturing and tearing
Premolars are posterolateral to canines, have flat crowns with prominent ridges called ____for crushing and grinding. cusps
____are the thickest and most posterior teeth, also adapted for crushing and grinding. molars
____is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems. Pharynx
Three skeletal muscle pairs of pharyngeal constrictors (____, ____, and _____) form the wall of the pharynx and participate in ____. superior, middle, and inferior; swallowing
Pharyngeal constrictors constrict and then the epiglottis ____. closes
CN __ innervates most pharyngeal muscles X
Branches of external ____arteries supply the pharynx carotid
Internal ____veins drain the pharynx jugular
Abdominopelvic cavity is covered with moist serous membranes called parietal and visceral _____. peritoneum
Organs that are completely surrounded by visceral peritoneum are called ____organs. They include the stomach and most of the small intestines. intraperitoneal
Organs that are only covered on their anterolateral surfaces with visceral peritoneum are called ____organs. Examples are the pancreas, ascending and descending colon of the large intestines, and the rectum. retroperitoneal
____are folds of peritoneum that support and stabilize intraperitoneal GI tract organs. Mesenteries
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves are sandwiched between the two ____ ____and supply the digestive organs. mesentery folds
____ ____extends inferiorly like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and covers most of the abdominal organs. Greater omentum
The lesser omentum connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal end of the ____to the liver. duodenum
The mesentery proper suspends most of the ___ ____from the posterior abdominal wall. small intestines
The ____is a peritoneal fold that attaches parts of the large intestine to the posterior abdominal wall. mesocolon
____ligament is a fold that attaches one organ to another or an organ to the anterior or lateral abd. wall. Peritoneal
____peritoneal ligament attaches the superior surface of liver to the diaphragm. Coronary
Falciform peritoneal ligament attaches ____to anterior internal abdominal wall. liver
The wall of the GI tract is composed of four concentric layers called tunics. From deep to superficial they are ____, _____, mucularis, _____ or _____. mucosa, submucosa, adventitia or serosa
3 parts to the mucosa layer of the GI tract: Superficial epithelium, An underlying ____connective tissue, called the lamina propria, and a thin layer of___ ____ , called the muscularis mucosae areolar, smooth muscle
Submucosa is composed of ___ ____ connective tissue and includes: lymphatic ducts, mucin-secreting glands, blood vessels, and nerves dense irregular
The nerves and their associated ganglia in the submucosa are referred to as the submucosal nerve plexus or ____ ____ Meissner plexus
Muscularis consists of two layers of smooth muscle____ ____ , ____ ____ layers outer longitudinal, inner circular
inner circular layer of the muscularis ____the lumen and forms sphincters when thickened. constricts
outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis ____the tube shorten
Two exceptions to the muscularis tunic of the GI tract are the____ and ____. esophagus and stomach
Nerve fibers and associated ganglia in the muscularis tunic between the two layers of muscles is called the myenteric nerve plexus or ______ plexus Auerbach
Adventitia or Serosa is the ____tunic layer. outermost
Adventitia tunic consists of areolar connective tissue with dispersed ____ and ____fibers. Retroperitoneal organs. collagen and elastic
Serosa tunic is the same as adventitia but covered by ____peritoneum. Intraperitoneal organs. visceral
Three unpaired arteries supply the abdominal GI tract: ____trunk, Superior, and Inferior ____arteries celiac, mesenteric
The branches travel within the tunics and mucosa of the GI tract contain capillaries with fenestrates ____cells. endothelial
Lacteals are present in villi of the ____ ____. small intestines
Lymph ducts transport lymph to the cisterna chyli, which drains into the ____ ____. thoracic duct
Lymphatic structures called MALT are found in the small intestine and appendix. These aggregate nodules are called ____ _____. Peyer patches
____nerve plexus: Sympathetic axons (T5-T9), parasympathetic axons (vagus). Celiac
Superior mesenteric nerve plexus: SA (T8-T12), PA (____). vagus
Inferior mesenteric nerve plexus: SA (L_-L_), PA (pelvic splanchnic nerves). L1-L2
____ innervation in the GI tract promotes activity, gland secretion, peristalsis, and relaxes sphincters, and vasodilation Parasympathetic
Sympathetic innervation in the GI tract ___ activity. Inhibits
A tubular passageway that conducts ingested materials from the pharynx to the stomach. Esophagus
The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the esophageal ____as it connects to the stomach. hiatus
The esophagus is approximately __cm long coursing anterior to the vertebral bodies 25
The esophagus is about 1.5 cm is in ____prior to changing into the stomach abdomen
Esophagus is a thick ____ ____squamous epith. nonkeratinized stratified
The esophagus has thick____, abundant elastic fibers and abundant mucus glands. submucosa
The esophagus’ muscularis tunic has an inner ____layer and outer ____layer and contains a blend of skeletal and smooth fibers. circular, longitudinal
Outer wall of the esophagus is ____. adventitia
The esophagus has two sphincters: ____ and ____ esophageal sphincters Inferior and superior
____ ____ sphincter is at the junction of the pharynx and the esophagus; closes during inhalation preventing air from entering the GI tract. Superior esophageal
Inferior esophageal sphincter is at the junction of the esophagus and the____; along with the esophageal opening of the____, prevents materials from regurgitating from the stomach into the esophagus stomach, diaphragm
During the ____phase of swallowing bolus is formed and pushed superiorly against the hard palate by the tongue and projected towards the oropharynx. voluntary
During the ____phase of swallowing bolus in the oropharynx, swallowing reflex begins. Soft palate and uvula elevate to block airway passage and the larynx elevates towards epiglottis. pharyngeal
During the esophageal phase swallowing is____. Bolus passes through esophagus (5-8sec) into the stomach. involuntary
Pancreatic juice is excreted by ___ cells organized into large clusters or ___, along with mucin. ___ is also secreted by the pancreas. acinar, acini, bicarbonate
Most ducts travel and merge in the pancreatic duct that drains into the ___ of the duodenum. papilla
___ is secreted by enteroendocrine cells in intestinal glands to promote secretion of juices. Cholecystokinin
Pancreatic juice secretion is stimulated by the ___ nerve. vagus (PNS)
The ___ ___ is a network of thin ducts that transport bile from liver and gall bladder to duodenum. biliary apparatus
Function of the gall bladder is ___, not ___ of bile. storage, production
Left and right lobes of the liver drain bile into the left and right ___ ___. hepatic ducts.
Left and right hepatic ducts merge to form the ___ ___ ___. common hepatic duct.
The cystic duct and the common hepatic duct merge to form the ___ ___ ___. common bile duct.
The common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct enter the duodenum through the ___ ___. hepatopancreatic ampulla.
The structural components of a portal triad are the branches of the ___ ___ vein, ___ artery and ___ ___. hepatic portal, hepatic, bile duct
What is the function of the gallbladder? To ___ and ___ bile. concentrate, store
The function of the pancreatic acini is to secrete ___ and ___ ___ of the pancreatic juice. mucin, digestive enzymes
The ___ produces bile. liver
A function of the ___ is detoxification of drugs, metabolites and poisons. liver
The liver stores excess ___ and ___. nutrients, vitamins.
____ in the ___ synthesize blood plasma proteins like albumins, globulins and proteins for blood clotting. Hepatocytes, liver
The liver contains ___ cells for break down of debris and aged erythrocytes or formed elements. phagocytic
The gall bladder is embedded on the ___ surface of the liver. inferior
The ___ ___ functions to collect and concentrate bile. gall bladder
The ___ ___ connects the gall bladder to the common bile duct. cystic duct
The gall bladder can hold ___ to ___ mL of concentrated bile. 40-60
The gall bladder has three regions: the neck, with a sphincter valve to control flow, the body and the ___. fundus
The pancreas has both ___ and ___ functions. endocrine, exocrine
The pancreas has exocrine functions that involve secreting digestive enzymes and bicarbonate, collectively called ___ ___, into the duodenum via the ___ ___ duct. pancreatic juices, main pancreatic
The head of the pancreas is wide and adjacent to the ___. duodenum.
The body of the pancreas is elongated and projects toward the left lateral ___ ___. abdominal wall
The tail of the pancreas tapers as it approaches the ___. spleen.
In the liver, there are several ___ ___ around the central vein. portal triads
The portal triads in the liver that are located around the central vein are called ___ ___. hepatic sinusoids
Hepatic sinusoids are lined with ___ cells (kupffer cells) which are phagocytic cells. reticuloendothelial
Hepatocytes absorb ___ and form ___ that assists with the chemical digestion of fats. nutrients, bile
Bile is released through ___ ___ to the bile duct in the portal triad. bile canaliculus
The liver is located in the ___ ___ of the abdomen. right quadrant
The liver weighs about ___ to ___kg. 1 to 2
The liver is comprised of four incompletely separated lobes: right, left, ___ and ___ caudate, quadrate
The right lobe of the liver is separated from the left lobe by the ___ ___ that secures the liver to the abdomen wall. falciform ligament
The round ligament in the liver is the remnant of the ___ ___ vein. fetal umbilical
The caudate lobe of the liver is adjacent to the ___ ___ ___. inferior vena cava
The quadrate lobe of the liver is adjacent to the ___. gallbladder
A connective tissue capsule forms septa that partition the liver into ___ ___. hepatic lobules
___ ___ are the functional units of the liver. Hepatic lobules
Hepatic lobules contain cells called ___. hepatocytes
At the periphery of each lobule of the liver there are several ___ ___. portal triads
The liver has dual blood supply. True or false true
The ___ ___vein carries blood to the liver from the GI tract, spleen and pancreas. It is rich in nutrients but poor in ___. hepatic portal, oxygen
The ___ ___ ___ splits into left and right hepatic arteries and is well oxygenated. hepatic artery proper
The hepatic portal vein and the hepatic artery proper mix in the ___ ___. hepatic lobules
Numerous hepatic veins drain into the ___ ___ ___. inferior vena cava
The descending colon originates at the left ___ ___. It is found along the ___ side of the abdomen. colic flexure, left
The descending colon makes contact with the iliac fossa and terminates into the ___ ___. sigmoid colon
The shape of the sigmoid colon resembles the letter S. It originates at the ___ ___ and enters the pelvic cavity. Then it turns inferomedially and is suspended by the ___ ___. sigmoid flexure, sigmoid mesentery
The ___ ___ terminates as the rectum. sigmoid colon
Muscular tube that readily expands to store accumulated fecal material prior to defecation is the ___. rectum
Three thick, transverse folds of the rectum, called ___ ___ , ensure that fecal material is retained during the passage of gas. rectal valves
The ___ terminates at the anal canal. rectum
The ___ ___ is the terminal few centimeters of the large intestine. anal canal
The anal canal passes through an opening in the ___ ___ muscles of the pelvic floor. levator ani
Anal ___ line the internal surface of the anal canal. columns
Anal sinuses secrete ___ for lubrication during defecation by the pressure exerted by feces. mucin
Internal and external anal sphincters open and close the anal canal during ___. defecation
The large intestine is lined with ___ ___epithelium and goblet cells, which secrete ___ to lubricate the fecal material. simple columnar, mucin
Longitudinal muscle of the large intestine wall is incomplete, forming bundles called ___ ___. teniae coli
The teniae coli bunch up the large intestines into many sacs, collectively called ___. haustra
In the large intestine, extending off the external surface of the haustra, are lobules of fat called ___ appendices or ___ appendages. omental, epiploic
The ingestion of food increases peristaltic movements in the ileum, opening the ileocecal valve, called ___ reflex. gastroileal
The gastroileal reflex produces more: ___ movements, ___ churning and ___ movements. peristaltic, haustral, mass
Peristaltic movements are weak and ___. sluggish.
Haustral churning: Distention with feces produces contraction for passage to the next ___ by relfex. haustra
Mass movements are powerful, peristaltic contractions involving the ___ ___ to propel feces to the rectum. They occur 2-3 times a day after a meal and are called ___ reflex. teniae coli, gastrocolic
The accessory digestive organs include the following organs that facilitate chemical digestive activities of the GI tract: ___, ___ ___, ___ and ___ ___. liver, gall bladder, pancreas, biliary apparatus
The duodenum is c-shaped and located in the ___ ___ quadrant. upper right
The duodenum becomes continuous with the jejunum at the ___ ___. duodenojejunal flexure (midline)
The duodenum is connected to the liver by the ___ ___. lesser omentum
The ___ ___ ___ is the site where bile and pancreatic secretions enter the duodenum. major duodenal papilla
Middle portion of the small intestine is the ___. jejunum
Primary region for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption is the ___. jejunum
The jejunum is suspended by the ___ ___. mesentery proper
The last segment of the small intestine is the ___. ileum
The distal end of the ileum terminates at the ileocecal valve, a sphincter that controls the entry of materials into the ___ ___. large intestine
The ileum is suspended by the ___ ___. mesentery proper
Internally, the mucosal and submucosal tunics of the small intestine are thrown into folds called the ___ folds or ___ ___. They help increase surface area of absorption and delay passage. circular, plicae circulares
Circular folds, or plicae circulares, are more numerous in the ___ and ___ and least numerous in the ___. duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Microscopic fingerlike projections called ___ can be seen on surface of circular folds and microscopic fingerlike projections called ___ can be seen on surface of the ___. villi, microvilli, villi
Each villi in the small intestine contains an arteriole, a ___, and ___ for absorption. venule, capillaries
In the small intestine, ___ at the center of the villus, are responsible for absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins, too large to be absorbed by capillaries. lacteals
There are three phases of swallowing: ___, ___ and ___. voluntary, pharyngeal, esophageal
Bolus is formed and pushed superiorly against the hard palate by the tongue. Projected towards the oropharynx. Which swallowing phase is this? voluntary phase
Bolus in the oropharynx, swallowing reflex begins. Soft palate and uvula elevate to block airway passage. Larynx elevates towards epiglottis. Which swallowing phase is this? pharyngeal phase
Involuntary. Bolus passes through esophagus (5-8sec) into the stomach. Which swallowing phase is this? esophageal phase
The stomach is in the upper left quadrant of abdomen, inferior to the ___. diaphragm
The stomach continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of the ___. bolus
The bolus eventually is processed into a pasty soup called ___. chyme
The stomach possesses how many layers of muscle? 3
The stomach secretes ___ and ___. acids, enzymes
The stomach is composed of four regions: the ___, ___, ___ and ___. cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
The stomach’s cardia is the opening at the ___ ___. cardiac orifice
The stomach’s fundus is superior to the ___ opening and is adjacent to the ___. esophageal, diaphrahgm
The largest region of the stomach is it’s ___. body
The stomach’s pylorus is divided into the ___ ___ and the ___ ___. pyloric antrum, pyloric canal
The ___ ___ is the stomach’s opening with the duodenum of the small intestine. pyloric orifice
The ___ ___ is the thick ring of circular smooth muscle that surrounds the pyloric orifice. pyloric sphincter.
The inferior border of the stomach is the ___ curvature and the superior border is the ___ curvature. greater, lesser
The internal surface of the stomach is thrown into folds called ___ ___ or ___. gastric folds, rugae
The large intestine is comprised of the following structures: ___, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ colon, ___ and ___ ___. cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anal canal
First part of large intestine is the ___. cecum
The ___ is in the large intestine, it’s a blind sac located in lower right quadrant of abdomen. cecum
The cecum extends inferiorly from the ___ ___. It represents the junction between the small intestine and large intestine. ileocecal valve
The vermiform appendix is lined with ___ nodules. lymphatic
The ascending colon originates at the ___ ___ and extends along the right side of abdomen. ileocecal valve
The ascending colon is retroperitoneal. true or false true
As the ascending colon approaches the inferior border of the liver, it makes a 90-degree turn toward the left side of the abdominal cavity; this bend in the colon is called the ___ ___ ___ or ___ ___. right colic flexure, hepatic flexure
The ___ ___ originates at the right colic flexure and approaches the spleen in the upper left abdominal quadrant. transverse colon
The transverse colon is suspended by the ___ ___. transverse mesocolon
The transverse colon makes a 90-degree turn inferiorly at the spleen; this bend in the colon is called the ___ ___ ___ or ___ ___. left colic flexure, splenic flexure
The ___ ___ ___ and ligamentum venosum form the inferior vertical parts of the liver. inferior vena cava
In the liver, the ___ ___ and round ligament form the superior vertical parts. gall bladder
The ___ ___ in the liver represents the horizontal crossbar; this is where the blood vessels (hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery proper) and lymphatic vessels, bile ducts, and nerves enter and leave the liver. porta hepatis
The small intestine consists of three specific segments (from proximal to distal from the stomach): ___ (___cm), ___ (___m), ___ (___m) duodenum, 25m (10 inches), jejunum, 2.5m (7.5 feet), ileum, 3.6m (10.8 feet)
The small intestine has intestinal glands or ___ of ___. They are enteroendocrine cells that release___, ___, gastric inhibitory peptide (prolong time of stomach emptying) and goblet cells. crypts, Lieberkuhn, secretin, cholecystokinin
Brunner glands in the small intestine release ___ mucus to protect ___ from acids. alkaline, duodenum
The large intestine forms a three-sided perimeter around the centrally located ___ ___. small intestine
The diameter is of the large intestine is ___ cm vs. 2.5 cm of the small intestine. 6.5
The ___ intestine absorbs fluids and ions and compacts undigestible wastes and solidifies them into feces. large
The large intestine absorbs a large/small amount of nutrients. very small
The ___ ___ stores the feces until defecation (expulsion of the feces). large intestine
5 types of secretory cells form gastric epithelium: ___ ___ cells, ___ ___ cells, ___ cells, ___ cells, ___ cells. surface mucous, mucous neck, parietal, chief, enteroendocrine
Surface mucous cells secrete ___ to prevent ulceration. mucin
Mucous neck cells secrete ___ ___ to maintain acidic conditions. acidic mucin
Parietal cells, HCl secreted for chemical digestion of proteins, secretes ___ ___ to absorb B12 in the ileum. intrinsic factor
Chief cells secrete ___ ___ to be activated by the HCl into pepsin who digests denatured proteins. inactive pepsinogen
Enteroendocrine cells secrete ___ that enters blood to stimulate secretion of chief and parietal cells. gastrin Somatostatin.
The ___ ___ finishes the chemical digestion process and is responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients (90%). small intestine
Ingested materials spend at least ___ hours in the small intestine while chemical digestion and absorption are completed. 12
About 6 meters (20 feet) long in an unembalmed cadaver but much shorter in a living individual due to ___ ___. muscle tone
The small intestine extends from the ___ to cecum of large intestine. pylorus
Blood supply and innervation of the small intestine in the ___ ___ artery and plexus. superior mesenteric
The wall of the stomach is lined by ___ ___ epithelium although little absorption occurs in the stomach. simple columnar
The stomach lining is indented by numerous depressions called ___ ___ which have gastric gland openings. gastric pits
The stomach lining does not contain goblet cells, but ___ ___ cells. surface mucous
The muscularis of the stomach has 3 layers: ___ ___ layer, middle circular layer and outer ___ layer. It has 3 layers ddue to the fact that they need to churn and mix ___. inner oblique, longitudinal, bolus
Along and at the base of the gastric pits are openings of gastric glands that secrete products into the ___. stomach
Created by: BrandiLynn