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Chp. 12 Heart

Chapter 12 - The Heart

The ______ is in the _______ cavity between the lungs in the space called the mediastinum. heart, thoracic
what is the function of the hear? to pump blood
the diaphragm is directly ______ the heart. below
in the embryo, the heart begins to beat at __ weeks of age. four
The heart is enclosed in the ________ membranes. pericardial
There are three layers of pericardial membranes. What are they? fibrous pericardium, parietal pericardium and visceral pericardium or epicardium.
What layer is the fibrous pericardium? The outermost layer
What is the fibrous pericardium? A loose fitting sac of strong fibrous connective tissue that extends inferiorly over the diaphragm and superiorly over the bases of the large vessels that enter and leave the heart.
What is another name for the visceral pericardium? epicardium
Between the parietal and visceral pericardial membranes is ______ fluid. serous
What is the function of serous fluid? to prevent friction as the heart beats.
the _____ of the four chambers of the heart are made of cardiac muscle called the myocardium. walls
How many chambers does the heart have? four
endocardium is simple _________ ___________ lining the 4 chambers, valves and vessels. squamous epithelium
What are the names of the upper chambers of the heart? the right and left atria
what is the name of the wall that seperates the right and left atria? interatrial septum
the lower chambers of the heart are called the right and left ________. ventricles
the right and left ventricles are seperated by thick walls called the ___________ ______. interventricular septum
What does the atria recieve blood from? the body or lungs
the ventricles pump blood to either the _____ or the _____. lungs or the body
the two large caval veins return blood from the body to the ______ ______. right atrium
the superior _____ _____ carries blood from the upper body. vena cava
the ________ ____ ____ carries blood from the lower body. inferior vena cava
from the right atrium, blood will flow through the right atrioventricular valve or the _________ _____ into the right ventricle. tricuspid valve
the triscupid valve is made of three ____ or cusps of the endocardium reinforced with connective tissue. flaps
what is the general purpose of all valves in the circulatory system? to prevent backflow of blood
the specific purpose of the _______ valve is to prevent backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium when the right ventricle __________. tricuspid, contracts
as the ventricle contracts, blood is forced behind the three valve flaps, forcing them _______ and together to _____ the valve upward, close
the left atrium receives blood from the lungs, by way of four _________ veins. pulmonary
the left atrioventricular valve is also referred to as the _____ valve or the _________ valve. mitral, bicuspid
the mitral valve prevents backflow of blood from the left _______ to the ______ atrium when the left ventricle _________. ventricle, atrium, contracts
What is another function of the _____ is the production of a hormone involved in blood pressure maintenance. atria
what is another name of atrial natriuretic peptide? atrial natriuretic hormone.
What is the function of the atrial natriuretic hormone? when the walls of the atria are stretched by increased blood volume or blood pressure the cells produce this hormone.
ANP __________ the reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys. decreases
the loss of water lowers the blood _______ and blood ________. volume, pressure
ANP is an antagonist to the hormone ___________ which _______ blood pressure. aldosterone, raises
when the right ventricle contracts, the _________ valve ________ and the blood is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. tricuspid, closes
another name for the pulmonary semilunar valve is what? pulmonary valve
the pulmonary valve has __ (number) flaps which are forced open when the right ventricle ______ and pumps blood in to the _________ artery. 3, contracts, pulmonary
when the right ventricle _______, blood tends to come back, but this fills the flaps and closes the pulmonary valve to prevent __________ of blood to the ______ ventricle. relaxes, backflow, right
what are the columns called that project in to the lower part right ventricle? papillary muscles
strands of fibrous connective tissue, the _______ __________, extend from the papillary muscles to the flaps of the tricuspid valve. chordae tendonae
when the right ventricle contracts, the papillary muscles also contract and pull on the chordae tendonae to _______ inversion of the ________ valve. prevent, tricuspid
which walls are thicker the left ventricle or the right ventricle? the left ventricle
what is the purpose of the left ventricle walls being so thick? to enable the left ventricle to contract more forcefully.
the left ventricle pumps blood to the body through the _____. aorta
true or false: the aorta is the third largest artery in the body. false. it is the largest artery in the body
where is the aortic semilunar valve? at the junction of the aorta and the left ventricle.
the aortic valve is opened by the force of ___________ of the left ventricle which also closes the _______ valve. contraction, mitral
the aortic valve _____ when the left ventricle _______. closes, relaxes
when the mitral valve closes, is prevents backflow of blood to the ______ atrium. left
the flaps of the mitral valve are also anchored by ________ _________ and papillary muscles. chordae tendonae
what is the fibrous connective tissue that anchors the outer edges of the valve flaps and keeps the valve openings from stretching? fibrous skeleton of the heart
the fibrous skeleton of the heart also seperates the _________of the atria from reaching the _________. myocardium, ventricles
the right side of the heart recieves ____________ blood from the body and pumps it to the _______. deoxygenated, lungs
the left side of the heart receives _________ blood from the lungs and pumps it to the ______. oxygenated, body
both atria work _______. simultaneously
at what part of the heart are the right and left coronary arteries located? they are the first branches of the ascending aorta and just beyond the aortic semilunar valve.
the coronary capillaries merge to form coronary ______. veins
the coronary veins empty blood into the large coronary sinus that returns blood to the ______ _______. right atrium
what is the purpose of the coronary vessels? to supply blood to the myocardium.
______ is essential for normal myocardial contraction. oxygen
what happens when a coronary artery becomes obstructed by a blood clot? part of the myocardium becomes ischemic.
what is ischemic? the myocardium becomes deprived of its blolod supply.
what is the medical term for a heart attack? a myocardial infarction
what causes a myocardial infarction. prolonged ischemia
the cardiac cycle is the sequence of events in ___ heartbeat. one
_____ is another term for contraction. systole
blood is constantly flowing from the _____ into both _____. veins, atria
as blood accumulates, its pressure forces open the right and left ___ ______. AV valves
two thirds of the atrial blood flows ________ into the ventricles. passively
when the atria contract, it pumps the remaining blood into the ________. ventricles
ventricular contraction forces blood against the _____ of the right and left AV valve and _____ them. flap, closes
most blood flows passively from _____ to ______. atria, ventricles
ALL blood to the arteries is ______ pumped by the ______. actively, ventricles
if any of the valves do not close properly and extra sound called a _____ ______ can be heard. heart murmur
What medical device do you most commonly use to listen to the heart beat? a stethoscope
the cardiac cycles is a sequence of mechanical events that is regulated by the _______ activity of the ______. electrical, myocardium
cardiac muscles have the ability to contract __________. spontaneously.
what is stenosis? abnormal narrowing of the valve
what are intercalated discs? folds of the cell membrane.
where are intercalated discs? at the ends of adjacent cardiac muscle cells
the presence of intercalated discs enables the ________ ________ to travel rapidly. electrical impluse
the natural pacemaker of the heart is the ________ ________. sinoatrial node or the SA node
what is the function of the SA node? a specialized group of cardiac muscles located in the wall of the right atrium just below the opening of the SVA.
where is the atriventricular (AV) node located? in the lower interatrial septum.
the transmission of _______ from the SA node to the AV node and to the rest of the atrial _________ brings about atrial ______. impulses, myocardium, systole
what carries the signal from the AV node to the bundle branches? the atrioventricular bundle
what is another name for the atrioventricular bundle? the bundle of His.
______ fibers brin the signal to the ventricles. purkinje
what medical device is commonly used to measure the electrical activity of the heart? the electrocardiogram (ECG)
what are arrythmias? irregular heartbeats
_________ is uncoordinated contraction? fibrillation
what is pulse? measurement of the heart rate at a vessel
what is a normal pulse range for adults? 60-80 beats per minute
______ is less than 60 BPM. bradycardia
tachycardia is more than ___ BPM. 100
cardiac output is the amount of blood _____ by a ventricle in 60 seconds. pumped
stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped by a ventricle in __ ______. one beaat
cardiac reserve is the difference between _______ output and _______ output in liters. resting, maximum
the ______ has the ability to influence the rate of contraction. central nervous system (CNS)
the medulla contains two cardiac centers. what are they? the accelerator center and the inhibitory center
what is the accelerator center? heart rate is carried out by the SNS
what is the inhibitory center? heart rate is carried out by the PSNS
__________ and/or baroreceptors detect pressure in the arteries. pressoreceptors
where are pressoreceptors/barroreceptors located? located in the carotid and aortic sinuses.
chemoreceptors detect ______ content in the _____. oxygen, blood
where are the chemoreceptors located? located in the carotid and aortic bodies
Created by: long2010



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