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World Civ I

Australopithecines “southern ape-men,” earliest human-like creatures, three to four million years ago
Homo habilis “handy human,” earliest tool-making hominid
Civilization complex culture large numbers of people share variety of common elements: an urban focus,complex social &political structure, economic & material complexity, distinct religious structure,the development of writing,&artistic/intellectual activity.
Cuneiform "wedge-shaped". A system of writing developed by the Sumerians that consisted of wedge-shaped impressions made by a reed stylus on clay tablets.
Monotheism having only one god, the doctrine or belief that there is only one god
Paleolithic Age “Old Stone Age,” the period of human history when humans used simple stone tools, food gatherers
Polytheistic having many gods, belief in or the worship of more than one god
Ziggurat a massive stepped tower upon which a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city was built
Mesopotamia "land between two rivers"; cradle of civilization
Pharaoh “great house,” Egyptian kings, considered to be divine
Hammurabi his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death, his successors were unable to maintain his empire; 6th king of Babylon
Sumerians intensive, year-round agriculture; abundance of crops led to permanent settlement for these people; Sumer was site of early writing;
Hyksos asiatic people who took over the eastern Nile delta;first appeared in Egypt during the eleventh dynasty, began their climb to power in the thirteenth dynasty, and came out of the second intermediate period in control of Avaris and the Delta. By the fiftee
Guru teacher, especially in the Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh religious traditions, where the term is an important honorific.
Jati a kinship group, the basic social organization of traditional Indian society, to some extent specialized by occupation.
Kshatriya originally, the warrior class of Aryan society in India; ranked below (sometimes equal to) brahmins, in modern times often government workers or soldiers.
Sati the Hindu ritual requiring a wife to throw herself on her deceased husband’s funeral pyre.
Vaisyas the third-ranked class in traditional Indian society, usually merchants.
Pariahs members of the lowest level of traditional Indian society, technically outside the class system itself; also known as untouchables.
Sanskrit an early Indo-European language, in which the Vedas were composed, beginning in the second millenium b.c.e. It survived as the language of literature and the bureaucracy in India for centuries after its decline as a spoken tongue.
Nirvana in Buddhist thought, enlightenment, the ultimate transcendence from the illusion of the material world; release from the “wheel of life.”
Sudras the classes that represented the great bulk of the Indian population from ancient times, mostly peasants, artisans, or manual laborers; ranked below brahmins, kshatriyas, and vaisyas but above the pariahs.
Brahman the Hindu word roughly equivalent to God; the divine basis of all being; regarded as the source and sum of the cosmos.
Brahmin a member of the Hindu priestly caste or class; “one who has realized or attempts to realize Brahman”; duties of a brahmin include studying Hindu religious scriptures and transmitting them to others orally, priests of Hindu temples are brahmins
Amenhotep revolutionized mortuary complex design by separating his tomb from his mortuary temple, setting a trend which would persist throughout the New Kingdom' 2nd pharoah of the 18th dynasty of Egypt
Aten disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology; originally an aspect of Ra' deified Aten is focus of monotheistic religion of Atenism established by Amenhotep IV, who later took the name Akhenaten in worship in recognition of Aten.
Sea of Reeds crossed by the Isrealites in their exodus from Egypt
King Saul the first king of Israel, fell on his sword to avoid capture
King David
Guatama buddha Siddhartha Buddha- spiritual
Mara demon who tempted Siddhartha
Rigveda Sanskrit hymns
Ancestor veneration showing respect to ancestors in order to give them peace and happiness in the afterlife
Harappa archaeological site in Punjab, close to Ravi river, contains remains of a large great city
Zoroastrianism good and evil are distinct sources; comes from prophet Zoroaster
Ahura Mazda divinity of Zoroastrianism
Angra Mainyu the destructive spirit
Aryan indo europeean people
4 noble truths 1. Life means suffering. 2. The origin of suffering is attachment. 3. The cessation of suffering is attainable. 4. The path to the cessation of suffering.
hominid some sort of name for fossils in general
exodus second book of christian bible, named for their exodus out of egypt
8 fold path the way to end suffering
Yu the great was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by founding the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character
Shun was a 23rd-22nd century BC leader of ancient China, among the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, whose half-century of rule was one of the longest in Chinese history.
Confucius wizened philosopher of China
Laozi considered the founder of philosophical Taoism; also considered "one of the three pure ones"
Emperor Yao/Tang Yao enevolence and diligence served as a model; supposedly ruled from the age of 20 to 119.
Oracle bones pieces of shell or bone, normally from ox scapulae or turtle plastrons, which were used for scapulimancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang Dynasty
Liu Bang (Gaozu or Gaodi) a famous general in the army; duke of pei, king of han, died at 61, iven an honorary title of emperor
Yin & Yang natural dualities; conflicting forces
Qin Shi Huang was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 246 BC to 221 BC during the Warring States Period.[3] He became the first emperor of a unified China in 221 BC.[3] He ruled until his death in 210 BC at the age of 49.[4]
Tian "sky, heaven, heavens; god, gods") is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the cosmos and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion
Mandate of Heaven similar to divine right to rule- this is predicated on the conduct of the ruler though
Legalism utilitarian philosophy on life; study of law
taoism works in harmony with reality, the essence of the natural universe
Created by: 1026900038