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AP H. Geo Vocab

List of vocab for AP Human Geography exam

QuestionAnswer
Ecumene The portion of the world's land surface that is permanently settled by human beings
Supranationalism A venture involving 3 or more national states - political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
Centripetal Force A force that unifies people
Centrifugal Force A force that divides people
Nation A group of people united by a common culture
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Nation-State A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
Multinational State States in which 2 or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination coexist
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface which can be described using toponym, site, situation, or mathematical grid
Toponym, Site, Situation, Absolute 4 Ways of Identifying Location
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Diffusion The process of the spreading of a feature or trend from one place to another
Cultural Ecology Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Fundamental geographic question Why or Where?
Mental Mapping The process whereby we think spatially, producing mental images of space which allows us to navigate and to communicate about the relative position of things in space
Gould & White Authors of mental maps
Cultural Landscape The result of the modification of the natural landscape by human activities (first defined by Carl Saeur)
Sequent Occupancy Whittlesey's concept that successive societies leave their cultural imprint on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Scale Term for the size of an area studied from local to global
Map Scale The relationship of a map size to the real-world
Eratosthenes First person to use the term "geography" who calculated the circumference of the Earth to within 0.05%
Hipparchus First person to describe location using a mathematical grid
Humbolt & Ritter First geographers to use the scientific method - they devised the environmental determinism approach
Geography The scientific study of the locations of people and activities across Earth's surface and the reasons for their distribution
Human Geography The scientific study of where and why human activities are located where they are
Cartography The art and science of map-making
Map Projection Transferring the image of the globe onto a flat sheet of paper
Relative Size, Shape, Distance, & Direction Distortions created by map projections
Mercator Projection Map projection formed by placing a cylinder around a globe - Useful for sea travel
Political Map Type of map that shows cities, provinces, counties, and countries
Topographic Map Type of map that shows physical features
Relief Map Type of map that shows differences in elevation, usually using isolines
Chloropeth Map Type of map that uses various colors to show the variations in the levels of certain characteristics
Dot Distribution Type of map that uses dots to represent a given value of a characteristic in order to show its distribution and concentration
Remote Sensing Gathering of data from satellites for cartographic purposes
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Computer systems that process geographic data, usually to make layered maps (thematic layers) showing the correlation between various characteristics
Pixels The tiny areas recorded by satellite sensors used in GIS
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Navigation systems using satellites
Cultural Ecology The interaction of a culture and its natural environment
Environmental Determinism An approach to understanding the interaction of people and the physical environment which demonstrates how the environment causes social development
Possibilism An approach to understanding the interaction of people and the physical environment which rejects environmental determinism in favor of a mutli-cause rationale for social development
Anthropogenic Human-induced environmental change such as global warming
Sustainability Restraint in the use of natural resources to ensure enough resources reamin for future generations
Toponym Term for a place name
Site The physical characteristics of a place
Situation The relative location of a place
Absolute Location Mathematical or grid location such as formed by latitude and longitude or townships and ranges
Longlot System The survey system, different from the rectangular system, used in Quebec and Louisiana in which land is divided into narrow parcels along rivers
Density Frequency of a characteristic in a given locale
Concentration The spread of a characteristic in a given locale - it can be clustered or dispersed
Pattern Geometric arrangement of a characteristic in a given locale
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct traditions
Core, Domain, Sphere 3 parts into which cultural regions are divided according to Donald Meinig
Formal Region A region in which the characteristic(s) apply throughout
Functional Region A region in which the characteristic(s) radiates from a node
Distance Decay The diminishing density of a characteristic in an outward direction from the core toward the periphery
Friction of Distance The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance
Time-Space compression Term for the reduction in time it takes for something to diffuse to a distance place
Perceptual Region A perceived region such as "downtown"
Vernacular Region A perceptual region defined by locals such as the American South
Idiographic Facts or features that are unique to a particular region
Nomothetic Facts and features that are universal
Spatial Interaction The interdependence of places which occurs through networks in which people, ideas, and goods move between places
Globalization Something becoming worldwide in scope
Transculturation Cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come in close contact
Acculturation Change in a less developed society that results from contact with a more developed society
Assimilation The incorporation of a less developed society into a more developed society
Diffusion The spreading of a characteristic from place to place
Hearth A node of the origination of an innovation
Relocation Diffusion Movement of a characteristic through the movement of people
Migration Permanent relocation diffusion
Hierarchical Diffusion Diffusion from a node of authority
Contagious Diffusion Rapid widespread diffusion
Stimulus Diffusion Diffusion of an underlying principle rather than the intended feature
Maquiladora Factory owned by non-Mexican countries operating in Mexico to take advantage of cheap labor and proximity to U.S. markets
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) The free trade agreement between the U.S., Mexico, and Canda
Hollow Core The area in North Mexico with a lower population density
Demography Scientific study of population
Carrying Capacity Capacity of an environment to support a population
Overpopulation The inability of the resources and economic system in an area to meet the needs of the population
Physiological Density The number of people supported by a unit of arable land
Agricultural Density Ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) Total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in an area
Crude Death Rate (CDR) Total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in an rea
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) Percentage by which a population grows in a year
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) Average number of children born to a woman in an area
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) Number of deaths per infants under one year of age compared to the number of live births per 1000 in an area
Doubling Time The number of years it takes the population to double
Demographic Transition The process of population change over time
Demographic Accounting Equation Formula used to predict how much a population will grow (Population + Births - Deaths + Immigration - Emigration)
Missouri Location of the geographic population center of the U.S. today called the centroid
Population Pyramid (Age/Sex Graph) Bar graph showing population distribution by age and gender
Dependency Ratio The number of people in the workforce compared to the number outside the workforce
Sex Ratio The number of males per 100 females in an area
Thomas Malthus Author of An Essay on the Principles of Population which predicted that food supplies would not be able to grow fast enough to keep up with population growth
Boserup Hypothesis The hypothesis that disagreed with Malthus and stated that increasing populations motivate improved agricultural technologies
One Child Policy China's anti-natalist policy
Epidemiological Transition The change in the principle causes of death over time
Model "S" Curve The shape that "J" curve becomes when considering Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model
Mobility The movement of people from place to place
Activity Space The space within which daily activity takes place
Circulation Mobility Reoccurring mobility
Seasonal Mobility A type of circulation mobility in which people move in a cyclical pattern
Ravenstein Formulated the 11 Laws of Migration
Emigration Migration away from a place (Exiting)
Push Factors Motivations to move away from a place
Immigration Migration to a place
Pull Factors Motivations to move to a place
Net Migration The mathematical difference between immigration and emigration
Intraregional Migration Migration within the same region
Interregional Migration Migration from region to region
International Migration Migration from country to country
Migration Transition Zelinsky's explanation of migration patterns that correspond to the stages of demographic transition
Chain Migration The process in which members of a family or a particular group migrate to the same locale
Eco-Migration Type of migration in which people move away from environmental disasters
Okies Term for those who emigrated from the Dust Bowl
Bureau of Citizenship & Immigration Services (BCIS) U.S. government agency that deals with immigration, formerly called the INS
1986 Immigration Reform & Control Act 1986 Act of the U.S. congress that set up a procedure for allowing undocumented workers to become citizens and the stricter documentation of workers
Visa Document that grants entry permission to foreign citizens
Guest Workers Foreign citizens who are granted legal entry in order to work, ut not to stay permanently
Brain Drain The mass emigration of talented people
Mariel Boatlift 1980 mass migration of people from Cuba to the U.S.
Great American Desert Name that the Long Expedition gave to the Southern Great Plains in the U.S.
Rust Belt Term for the old industrial northeastern part of the U.S.
Komsomols Temporary labor forces, usually made up of students, in the USSR
Urbanization Interregional migration to cities
Suburbanization Interregional migration to the outlying communities around a city
Counter-Urbanization Interregional migration to rural areas
Step Migration Migration that occurs in stages, such as to a nearby village and then to a town and then to a city
Intervening Opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of places farther away
An Intervening Obstacle The restriction of migration from Eastern Europe during the Cold War is an example of:
Colonia Mexican squatter settlement
Tobler's First Law of Geography "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant thing."
Gravity Model A model used to predict spatial interaction, where size (population) is directly related to interaction and distance is inversely related to interaction
Law of Retail Gravitation William J Reilly's explanation of the fact that larger cities have larger trade areas (retail hinderlands)
Breaking Point The boundary between two trade areas in the retail gravitation model
Migration Stream A well-defined migration channel fro ma specific origin to a particular destination
United Nations High Commission on Refugees (UNHCR) UN organization that deals with refugees
Eritrea African country that won its independence from Ethiopia
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 UN document that declares, among other things, that everyone has a right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution
Containerized Shipping Highly efficient method of shipping that uses steel boxes to ship goods that are easily transferred from ship to rail to truck
Four Asian Dragons Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea
1 Country, 2 Systems Chinese government policy regarding Hong Kong
Map Aggregation The process of determining the size of the units to be investigated in GIS (counties, provinces...)
Primary Map Data Map data collected by the researcher
Secondary Map Data Map data obtained from published sources like the Census Bureau and PRB
Proportional Symbol Map Type of map that uses a symbol in varying sizes to show the magnitude of a characteristic
Syncretism The fusion of two distinctive cultural traits into a unique hybrid trait such as the blending of Islam and Hinduism in the Sikh Faith
Customs Repetitive actions of a group of people
Cultural Landscape Man's imprint on the natural landscape
Folk Culture Customs of small homogeneous rural groups that remain unique through relative isolation; varies mostly with place
Popular Culture Customs of a large heterogeneous group that diffuse widely, creating a uniform landscape; varies mostly with time
TV The most important mechanism for the diffusion of popular culture
Migration Stream The continuous flow and return flow of migrants from a particular place to a particular place
Biased Innovation Innovations (or diseases) that are less (or more) accessible to people of certain gender, class, age, or ethnicity
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) A functional urban area of at least 50,000 in the U.S.
Scatter Plot A graph showing the correlation between two variables
Language Divergence The differentiation of languages over time and space in which, through isolation, dialects become distinct languages
Language Convergence The transculturation (cultural borrowing) of languages that occurs through interaction
Esperanto An inverted language of the twentieth century based on Latin that was intended to become a world language
Language The communication system of a group of people
Literary Tradition Written form of a language
Mandarin Chinese Language spoken by the largest number of people
English Language most widely (spatially) spoken
Lingua Franca Commonly used language of trade
Language Family A collection languages related through a common ancestor that existed before recorded history (ex. Indo-European)
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past (ex. West Germanic)
Dialect A variation of a language spoken in a particular region or by a particular group (e.g. American Midland South)
Indo-European Largest language family
Germanic Language branch to which English belongs
Balto-Slavic Language branch to which Ukrainian belongs
Cyrillic Alphabet used to write Russian
Farsi Iranian language
Sino-Tibetan Second largest language family
Magyar Hungarian language
Uralic Unique European language family including Magyar and Finnish
Relocation Diffusion (Migration) Usual method for the diffusion of languages
Jutland (Denmark) Origin of the English Language
Middle English The blending of Old English and French
Latin Base language of the Romance languages
Vulgar Latin Language spoken by the Roman soldiers in the provinces
Vernacular Languages Everyday languages spoken by the people in an area
Proto Indo-European Theoretical ancient language that became the Indo-European languages
Conquests Method of diffusion of Indo-European languages according to the Kurgan Hearth Theory
Russia/Kazakhstan Hearth of the Indo-European languages according to the Kurgan Hearth Theory
Agriculture Method of diffusion of the indo-European languages according to the Anatolian Hearth Theory
Anatolian Peninsula (Modern-Day Turkey) Hearth of the Indo-European languages according to the Anatolian Hearth Theory
Pyrenees Mountains The location in Europe where Basque is spoken
Standard Language A recognized or official language in an area
English The official language of the United States
Isogloss A word-usage boundary
Creolized Language A language formed from the blending of a colonizer's language with that of an indigenous people
British Received Pronunciation (BRP) The standard form of English spoken in London by upper-class Britons and at Cambridge and Oxford
Castilian Latin American name for the Spanish spoken in Spain
Extinct Languages Languages no longer in daily usage
Hebrew Revived language of the modern-day state of Israel
Elizer Ben-Yehuda Author of the first modern Hebrew dictionary
Celtic Original languages of the British Isles
French & Flemish Two languages of Belgium
German, French, Italian, Romansh Languages of Switzerland
French Language of Quebec
Pidgin Language Simplified form of a language used by non-native speakers
Ebonics African-American dialect
Franglais Diffusion of English into French
Spanglish Diffusion of English into Spanish
Fundamentalism Revivalism of basic beliefs and the strict following of those beliefs
Zionism The movement to reestablish Israel in the modern world
West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights Three territories over which the Palestinians have some autonomy
Ataturk Founder of modern Turkey
Bosporus Strait Body of water that separates the European and Asian parts of Turkey
Roman Catholicism Predominant religion in Ireland
Enclave Cluster of a particular group, such as the Poles in Detroit
Exclave Territory belonging to a particular country that is not attached to the country and is not an island such as Alaska and Kalingrad
Ghetto A region within a city in which a particular ethnic group dominates and creates and ethnic landscape - Originally an area set aside for Jews in European cities
Segregation Index A number between 0 and 1 showing the degree of separation between two groups (lack of interaction)
Social Distance The likelihood that two groups will interact
Spatial Convergence Interaction between two factors (groups)
Spatial Divergence Segregation between two factors (groups)
Universalizing Religion A religion that espouses the idea that there is one true religion for all people
Evangelical Religion A religion which has a mandate to convert others
Ethnic Religion Regional religions or those associated with a particular group that do not attempt to convert people
Zoroastrianism Monotheistic religion that developed in Southwest Asia about 3500 years ago
Christianity Largest religion
Islam Fastest growing religion
Branch A major division within a religion, such as Protestant
Denomination A division within a branch of a religion, such as Methodist
Sect A breakaway group from a religion such as the Branch Davidians
Baptist Largest Protestant denomination in the U.S.
Mormons Member sof the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints
Salaam Arabic word for peace
Muslim Follower of Islam; it means one who submits to the will of God
Allah Arabic word for God
Faith, Prayer, Giving, Fasting, Pilgrimage Five Pillars of Faith
Ramadan Month of fasting for Muslims
Hajj Muslim pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca)
Sunni, Shiites/Shia Two branches of Islam
Nation of Islam Muslim sect founded in Detroit
Elijah Muhammad Early leader of the Nation of Islam who advocated the establishment of a separate autonomous nation within the U.S.
Malcolm X Founder of the Organization of Afro-American Unity
Siddhartha Gautama The Buddha Prince
"Enlightened One" Meaning of "Buddha"
Great Renunciation Buddha's search for enlightenment
4 Noble Truths Result of Buddha's Great Renunciation
Nirvana State beyond suffering in Buddhism
8-Fold Path Means to achieving nirvana in Buddhism
Mahayana Branch of Buddhism dominant in China, Japan, and Korea; its name means "big raft" - followers emphasize Buddha's compassion
Theravada Branch of Buddhism dominant in Southeast Asia - Followers believe in giving up worldly goods and living as monks
Tantrayana Branch of Buddhism traditionally dominant in Tibet and Mongolia
Dalai Lama The spiritual leader of the Tibetan Buddhists who lives in exile in India since the chinese takeover of Tibet
India & Nepal Two countries in which 99% of Hindus live
Vedas Aryan religious texts upon which Hinduism is based
Brahma The creator god in Hinduism
Vishnu The preserver god in Hinduism
Siva/Shiva The destroyer god in Hinduism (not seen as evil)
Social Order Means of achieving harmony in society according to Confucianism
Lu Province in China Birthplace of Confucius
Li Correct behavior (good citizenship) in Confucianism
Lao-Zi (Lao Tse) Founder of Daoism
Return to Nature Means of achieving harmony in society according to Daoism
Taiwan Island where Daoism is still openly practiced today
Feng Shui Placement of buildings and objects within buildings in patterns that are in harmony with nature - LIterally means "wind-water"
Shinto Ethnic religion of Japan
Meiji Japanese dynasty that made Shinto the official religion - A political cult developed in which the emperor was seen as divine
Ethical Monotheism Jewish belief in only one god which emphasized proper conduct
U.S., Israel Top two countries for Jewish populations
Animism Belief that spirits are in animate and inanimate objects
Jesus Founder of Christianity
Bethlehem Birthplace of Jesus
Gospels First four books of the New Testament - Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John - About the life and teachings of Jesus
Jesus' Death The atonement for Christians' sins
Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Extreme Unction, Matrimony, Holy Orders
Great Schism Event that split the Catholic Church in 1054
Eastern Orthodoxy Dominant Branch of Christianity in Russia
Martin Luther Leader of the Protestant Reformation
Salvation is achieved through faith alone Answer to Martin Luther's burning question
Sarah Abraham's first wife and the mother of the Jewish people
Hagar Abraham's second wife and the mother of the Muslim people
Muhammad Founder of Islam - Considered to be the last and greatest prophet of God
Gabriel Angel Muhammad had visions of
Quran (Koran) Holy book of Islam
Hijra Muhammad's emigration to Yathrib in 622
Medina Name of Yathrib today - It means "City of the Prophet"
Lumbini (Nepal) Birthplace of Prince Siddhartha
Dravidians Indigenous Indians
Israel Hearth of Christianity
Temporary Relocation Diffusion Christianity's diffuse (type) through missionaries
Contagious Diffusion Christianity's diffusion (type) through contact between believers and non-believers
Hierarchical Diffusion Christianity's diffusion (type) through leaders requiring their subjects to adopt Christianity
Permanent Relocation Diffusion Christianity's diffusion (type) through the migration of believers
Saudi Arabia Hearth of Islam
Conquest & Missionaries Means of the diffusion of Islam
Asoka Emperor who adopted Buddhism and hierarchically diffused the religion in South Asia
South Asia Hearth of Buddhism
Sri Lanka Only part of South Asia where Buddhism is still a dominant religion
Diaspora Forced dispersion of the Jews in 70 A.D.
Bodh Gaya Buddha's place of enlightenment
Makkah (Mecca) Birthplace of Muhammad
Black Stone Housed in the Shrine al-Haram al-Sharif in Makkah - It represents the concept of monotheism
Mount Kailas Source of the Ganges River where Siva lives
Dome of the Rock Holiest site in Jerusalem for Muslims
Church of the Holy Sepulcher Holiest site in Jerusalem for Christians
Western Wall Holiest site in Jerusalem for Jews
Natural Events What ethnic religious holidays are usually based on
Events in the Life of the Founder What universalizing religious holidays are usually based on
Rosh Hashanah Jewish New Years
Yom Kippur Jewish Day of Atonement
Easter Christian celebration of Jesus' resurrection
Gregorian Type of calendar used by the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches
Julian Type of calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church
Strict Lunar Calendar Type of calendar used in Islam
Mosque Muslim public meeting place
Minarets Muslim prayer towers
Temples Hindu shrines to particular gods
Pagodas Buddhist buildings containing relics believed to be part of Buddha's body or clothing
Taliban Fundamentalism group that took control of Afghanistan after the Soviet Army withdrew from the country
Caste System Fixed social class system in India (historic)
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth
Race Identity with a group who share a common biological ancestor
Racism Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities
Color The only racial trait that geographers are concerned with because it is/has been a primary way in which many societies sort out where they reside, attend school, recreate, and so on
Discrimination Action based on prejudice
Hispanic Race absent from the 2000 Census (because it is not a race)
Plessy vs. Ferguson U.S. Supreme Court decision that established the doctrine of separate but equal
Jim Crow Laws U.S. segregation laws
Brown vs. Board of Education U.S. Supreme court decision which ended segregation in public schools
Blockbusting Taking advantage of "white flight" by buying property from whites who are fearful of blacks moving into their neighborhoods/future lowering of property values and reselling it to blacks at large profits
Apartheid Legal segregation policy in South Africa
Nelson Mandela Leader of the African National Congress (ANC) and first black president of South Africa
Nationality One's identification with a group of people who share legal attachment and allegiance to a particular country
Hindus & Muslims Two principle ethnic/religious groups in South Asia
Mahatma Gandhi Leader of the peaceful civil disobedience movement in India
Kashmir Territory in India made up of a majority of Muslims, many of whom would like to be part of Pakistan
Multiethnic State A state with more than one ethnic group such as Belgium (Flemish & Waloons)
Multinational State A state with two or more ethnic groups which have a tradition of self-determination, such as the U.K.
Nagomo-Karabakh Region in Azerbaijan in which the majority of people are Armenian Christians who would rather be part of Armenia
Sudan African country in which more than two million people have died in the recent civil war between Muslims and non-Muslims
Somalia African country in which six major clans have been waging a civil war resulting in a complete breakdown of government - Blackhawk Down took place here
Lebanon Country in the Middle East that has experienced ethnic conflict as the proportions of various groups have changed - It is mostly controlled by Syria
Shiites, Sunnis, Kurds The three principle ethnic groups in Iraq
Sinhalese Buddhists, Tamils (Hindus) Two principle ethnic groups in Sri Lanka
Camp David Accords Peace agreement mediated by President Jimmy Carter between Israel and Egypt
Ethnic Cleansing The process in which a dominant group removes a less powerful group by force in order to create an ethnically pure territory
Tito Former communist dictator of Yugoslavia
Balkanization The breakup of a state into various smaller states based on ethnic identity
Hutus & Tutsis Two rival ethnic groups in Central Africa that have engaged in ethnic cleansing
Indonesia World's most fragmented state - It also has the highest number of Muslims
Transmigration Program Government program in Indonesia that provides incentives for people to move from densely populated islands to less densely populated ones
Bali Indonesia's top tourist destination
Malay, Chinese, Indians Three groups involved in ethnic conflict in Malaysia
Bumiputera Malaysia's government policy which attempts to achieve harmony by integrating the Malay into the economic mainstream with an affirmative action type program
Ethnic Islands Small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context
Longevity Gap The greater average life expectancy of women compared to men
Barrio A city neighborhood which is predominantly occupied by Latinos
Shatterbelt Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress and often fragmented by aggressive rivals - Eastern Europe is an example
Ethnic Landscape That part of the cultural landscape that can be attributed to a particular ethnic group
Ethnocentrism The belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Edge Cities Outlying development nodes that provide employment and the provision of goods and services so that residents no longer have to commute to the city center
Leapfrog Development Development that occurs well beyond the limits of the current urbanized area, usually to take advantage of less expensive land
Mixed Use Development A new kind of zoning classification that stresses location of residential and commercial uses in close proximity and a greater density so people can walk to work, stores, and schools
New Urbanism Movement by architects and planners to build more traditional neighborhoods that foster a sense of community - These neighborhoods emphasize people, not cars
Infill Development Construction of small-scale developments on vacant pockets of land remaining within a city
Political Geography The study of the formal regions organized by governments
State Basic political unit that includes a population, territory, and sovereignty
38th Parallel Boundary between North and south Korea
Taiwan Home of the Nationalist Chinese
Antarctica Only large landmass not a part of a sovereign state
Russian Federation Largest state
Monaco Smallest UN member
Roman Empire Height of political unity in the ancient world
Colonialism Control of an unorganized territory
Imperialism Control of an inhabited territory organized by indigenous people
US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Largest remaining colony
Compact State shape in which the distance from the center does not vary significantly, such as Poland
Prorupted Namibia's state shape
Access to a Resource, Separation of 2 States Two purposes of proruptions
Elongated Chile's state shape; long and narrow
Fragmented Indonesia's state shape
Perforated South Africa's state shape
Frontier An area between two states that is not completely controlled by either
Green Line (not a frontier) UN zone separating the Turks and Greeks in Cyprus
Aozou Strip Disputed territory between Libya and Chad
Straight Line Usual shape of a geometric boundary
UN Convention of Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) International agreement that sets national offshore claims at 12 miles and the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) at 200 miles
Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia Baltic Countries
Russian Federation Largest multinational state
Chechnya Independence-minded Russian territory in the northern Caucasus region
Unitary System of government in which most power rests with the central government
Federal System of government in which most power rests with the national and provincial governments
Gerrymandering Drawing political districts to the advantage or disadvantage of a particular group
Wasted Vote Type of gerrymandering in which a group is broken up so it is ia minority in many districts
Excess Votes Type of gerrymandering in which pockets of a particular group are packed into as few districts as possible
Stacked Vote Type of gerrymandering in which pockets of a particular group are linked together
League of Nations Organization replaced by the UN
Bipolar World Term for the world of the Cold War which pitted NATO against the Warsaw Pact
Balance of Power The formation of alliances of approximately equal military power that tends to prevent conflict
Organization of American States (OAS) International organization of American states that promotes social, cultural, and economic links
Organization of African Unity (OAU) Organization of African states that works to eliminate minority rule
Commonwealth of Nations Organization of 48 states that were once a part of the British Empire that promotes economic and cultural cooperation
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) Economic alliance of communist countries that was disbanded in the 1990s
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Free trade agreement between Mexico, the U.S., and Canada
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Organization of countries that export large amounts of petroleum - By controlling worldwide supply, it influences prices
European Union (EU) Economic unity of many European countries
Euro Common currency of many EU member countries
Terrorism The use of violence against non-military targets to intimidate states into changing policies
Al-Qaeda Terrorist group responsible for the attacks in the U.S. on 9/11/2001
Iraq, Iran, North Korea Axis of Evil identified by President George W. Bush
Taliban The group that took control of the government of Afghanistan and assisted in the training of Al-Qaeda terrorists
Geopolitics The study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
Organic Theory Geopolitical theory that states that states need to grow or they will die
Heartland Theory Geopolitical theory that identifies a political power base in the heart of Eurasia which will eventually dominate the entire world
Rimland Theory Geopolitical theory that identifies a political power base on the coastal fringes of Eurasia which will eventually dominate the entire world
World Systems Theory A core-periphery model of the spatial distribution of economic power – The core is made up of the strong states and the periphery is made up of the weak states
Balkanization/Devolution Factors that influence the breakup of a state from within
Irredentism Enclave of a nation into a territory of another state
Nation-Building Use of armed forces in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy
Diaspora Forced dispersion of the Jews by the Babylonians and later by the Romans in which they were routed from their traditional homeland and forced to live among the other nations of the world
Territorial Morphology A state's geographic shape which can have a decisive impact on its spatial cohesion and political viability
Forward Capital A capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border - It confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region
Subsequent Boundary A boundary drawn during the course of development of the cultural landscape
Superimposed Boundary Forcibly drawn boundary across a unified cultural landscape
Relic Boundary A boundary that has ceased to function but whose imprints are still evident on the cultural landscape
1884 Conference of Berlin Conference in which the European powers decided upon the rules for colonizing Africa
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Offshore territory claimed by states for their exclusive economic gain
Core Area The largest population cluster of a nation-state
Agriculture The deliberate modification of Earth's surface through the Cultivation of plants and the rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
Carl Saeur (Cultural Landscape Guy) Person who developed the Multiple Hearths Theory of Agriculture
Consumption Purpose of subsistence agriculture
Sale Purpose of commercial agriculture
Derwent Whittlessey Person who developed the mapping system of agricultural regions
Shifting Cultivation Type of agriculture that includes slash adn burn
Pastoral Nomadism Type of agriculture practiced in dry climates in less developed regions of the world
Intensive Subsistence Farming Type of agriculture that often includes rice and production in less developed regions
Sawah Proper name for a rice "paddy"
Plantations Type of agriculture practiced in LDCs in which specialty crops are grown by companies owned by MDCs or export to MDCs
Mixed Crop & livestock Type of agriculture practiced in MDCs in which there is an integration of crops and livestock
Milkshed The market area for fresh milk
Wheat #1 export crop
Livestock Ranching Type of agriculture often practiced in MDCs in the same climate as pastoral nomadism in LDCs
Winter Wheat Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the early summer
Spring Wheat Wheat that is planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Reaping, Threshing, Cleaning Three steps in harvesting wheat
Mediterranean Type of agriculture practiced in Southern Europe which often includes horticulture
Boserup Thesis Thesis that states that population growth leads to the development of new farming methods and increased production
von Thunen's Model Core-periphery model of agriculture that explains the pattern of the distribution of various agricultural activities based on land costs (rent) and transportation costs
Value of Yield & Transportation Cost Two factors used to determine crop choice according to von Thunen's Model
Sustainable Agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimizes pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of pesticides and herbicides
Green Revolution The third agricultural revolution in which high-yield seeds were developed and agricultural science and technology was diffused from MDCs to LDCs
The Holy Grail of Agricultural Science Developing crops that can take nitrogen from the air rather than the soil
Japan's Rice Bowl Japan's Tohoku region (in the north)
Yamase Cold Japanese winds that hamper the rice harvest
Tokyo-Nagoya-Osaka World's largest megalopolis
Luxury Crops Plantation-grown crops which are generally produced in LDCs by MDC companies for export to MDCs
Capital-Intensive Agriculture Form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods
Planned Agricultural Economy The agricultural system of communist countries in which the government controls production and distribution
Friction of Distance A measure of how much distance discourages movement between places, based on time, energy, or cost that must be expended
Aquaculture Growing crops on water in limited space
Debt-for-Nature Swap The forgiving of LDC debt by MDCs in return for the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices
Sidewalk Farmer A farmer who lives in an urban area and makes frequent trips to the farm to tend the crops
Suitcase Farmer A farmer who lives in an urban area during most of the year, but lives on the farm during planting and harvest times
Development The process of improving the material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology
Development The extent to which a society makes effective use of its resources, both human and natural
Human Development Index (HDI) The measure devised in 1990 which is used to compare the relative development of countries and regions
1.0 (100%) Highest possible HDI
United Nations Organization that calculates HDI
Economic, Social, Demographic Three types of factors used to calculate HDI
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per Capita Economic factor used to calculate HDI
Literacy Rates, Education Level Social factors used to calculate HDI
Life Expectancy Demographic factor used to calculate HDI
Primary Sector Economic sector that includes farming and mining
Secondary Sector Economic sector that includes manufacturing
Tertiary Sector Economic sector that includes the provision of goods and services and information processing
Cars, Phones, TVs Goods used in the consideration of nonessential goods per person
Self-Sufficiency Model Approach to economic development that makes investment across all sectors of the economy and sets barriers to international trade
International Trade Model Approach to economic development that focuses on unique assets and their global trade to generate capital to improve the overall economy
Rostow's 5 Stage Model (Modernization) Traditional Society, Preconditions for Take-Off, Take-Off, Drive to Maturity, Age of Mass Consumption
Wallerstein's World Systems Model Core-periphery model of the distribution of economically strong countries and economically dependent countries
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) Comparison measure calculated using income, literacy, education ,and life expectancy differences in the male and female populations
Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) Comparions measure calculated using variations in the economic and political inclusion of the female populations in different areas (first emphasized internationally in the 1990s)
World Trade Organization (WTO) International organization established in 1995 to reduce trade barriers and promote international trade
Swidden Patch cleared for crops in slash and burn agriculture
Sustainable Development The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
James Watt Inventor of the first practical steam engine
Cottage Industry Manufacturing in stages that took place in people's homes
Textile and Iron Frist industries of the Industrial Revolution
Clustered The concentration of industry
Special Economic Zones Areas in China where foreign investment is allowed
1970s Decade that stagnant demand became an issue in the global economy
Western Europe, Western Hemisphere, East Asia Three major trading blocks
Location Theory Theory that predicts where a business will or should be located
(Weber's) Least Cost Theory Explanation of the optimal location of a factory as one that minimizes the costs of the transportation of raw material and finished goods as well as labor
(Hotelling's) Locational Interdependence Theory Theory that states that competitors will attempt to maximize sales by constraining each other's sales territories by moving closer to one another until they are back-to-back
Footloose Industry An industry for which the cost of transportation plays no role in industrial location (lightweight and valuable products)
Bulk-Reducing Industries Industries that are ideally located near their input materials
Just-In-Time (JIT) Manufacturing process in which inventory between the steps of production is limited to improve quality and reduce costs
Land, Labor, Capital Economic Site Factors
Export-Processing Zones Zones in many LDCs which attract foreign investment that include easy access to distribution facilities, tax exemptions, and lack strict environmental regulations
Fordist System of manufacturing that uses assembly lines in which workers perform the same task over and over
Post-Fordist System of manufacturing in which workers are given a variety of tasks to perform
Basic Industries Industries that sell primarily outside their regions
Non-Basic Industries Industries that sell primarily within their regions
Regional Multiplier The effect of adding basic industries creating jobs for both basic and non-basic industries
Settlements Location of services
Near Customers Optimal location for services
Consumer, Business, Public Three types of services
Clustered Rural Settlements Village surrounded by fields (where most people still live today)
Central Place Theory Geographic model that explains the distributions of services and the regular pattern of settlements in many MDCs
Walter Christaller Geographer who developed Central Place Theory
Central Places Market centers that are centrally located and compete with each other
Hinterland (Market Area) Nodal region surrounding a central place in which the central place provides services
Hexagons Shape used in Central Place Theory to show market areas
Range & Threshold Two factors used to determine the extent of a market
Range Maximum distance people will travel for a service
Threshold Minimum number of people needed to support a service
High-Order Central Place A central place with a high threshold and a long range
Low-Order Central Place A central place with a low threshold and a short range
Market Area Analysis Process that is used to determine whether or not to locate a service in a particular place
Optimal Location The location that will minimize the distance to a service for the largest number of customers - Used in a market area analysis
Rank-Size Rule Hierarchical pattern of the distribution of cities in which the second largest city is half the size of the largest
Primate City Rule Hierarchical pattern of the distribution of cities in which the largest city is more than twice the size of the second largest city
World Cities Cities that are centers of the flow of information and capital
New York, London, Tokyo Three Tier 1 World Cities - Major stock-exchanges are located in these cities
Command & Control Centers Cities that are headquarters of large corporations
Dependent Centers Cities that provide relatively unskilled labor and depend on world cities for economic health
Central Business District (CBD) Geographic term for "downtown"
Randstad Dutch megalopolis which encloses an open space called the Green Heart
Dutch Edge Cities (not the same as an edge city) Cities along the edge of the Green Heart in the Netherlands
Deglomeration The movement of businesses out of the city center as costs rise above the agglomeration benefits
Bid-Rent Theory Theory that explains one pattern of urban land-use and that businesses are willing to pay the highest rents in the CBD and less and less toward the periphery
Suburban Sprawl The spreading of residency into the outlying regions of a city
1/2 Approximate fraction of the world's population that lives in urban areas
Decreased need for farmers Principle push factor in urbanization
Increased need for secondary & tertiary workers Principle pull factor in urbanization
Social Type of factors that Louis Wirth used to define an urban area
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) A central city in the U.S. of at least 50,000, the county within which the city is located, and the adjacent counties which have a functional connection to the city
Gateway Cities Cities that act as ports of entry and distribution centers
Megacities Cities that have experience population explosions and unplanned growth resulting in pollution ad poverty
Megalopolis An area in which urban areas have grown together
Boswash (Core Area of the U.S.) The region from Boston to Washingotn, D.C. in which 1/4 of the U.S. population lives on 2% of the land area
Jean Gottman Person who identified the U.S. megalopolis, Boswash
Ruhr Valley German megalopolis
Johannesburg-Pretoria South African megalopolis
Chicago City where the three classic models of urban structure were developed
"The Loop" Chicago's CBD
E.W. Burgess Sociologist who developed the Concentric Zone Model of Urban Structure
Homer Hoyt Economist who developed the Sector Model of Urban Structure
C.D. Harris & E.L. ullman Geographers who developed the Multiple Nuclei Model of Urban Structure which is more applicable to newer, faster-growing cities
Census Tracts Divisons of cities used by the Census Bureau in the U.S. of approximately 5000 people - Often used in GIS
Social Area Analysis Comparison of characteristics such as income, education, and ethnicity in urban areas, often using GIS
City Center Preferred locale of wealthy residency in European cities
High-Rise Apartments Typical suburban dwellings in Europe
Pre-Colonial, Colonial, Independence Three stages of development of cities in many LDCs
Filtering The process in which large houses are subdivided to be rented to low-income people
Redlining The illegal process in which banks mark off an area on a map where they refuse to make loans
Gentrification The process of middleclass people renovating deteriorated inner-city neighborhoods for their own use
Annexation The process of including new areas within a city
Density Gradient The concept that land occupancy diminishes as one moves from the core of a city to the periphery
Smart Growth Legislation and regulations which limit sprawl and preserve prime agricultural land
Lean Production System Another name for the JIT "pull" manufacturing system
Biomass Fuels Fuels such as wood, plant material, and animal waste
Fossil Fuels Fuels like oil, natural gas, and coal
Oil Shale Abundant orm of petroleum found in Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado
Uranium Fuel used in nuclear fission
Chernobyl, Ukraine Location of the 1986 nuclear accident
Not In My Backyard NIMBY
Plutonium Product (other than electricity) produced by a breeder reactor
Hydrogen Fuel used in nuclear fusion
Pollution Waste that exceeds the capacity of the environment to accept or absorb it
Environmental Stress The threat to the environmental security by human actions such as atmospheric and groundwater pollution, deforestation, oil spills, and ocean dumping
Ecotourism A way to bring economic benefit through tourism while not causing social and environmental damage
Nitrogen (78%) The most abundant element in the atmosphere
Global Warming The result of manmade pollution (CO2) in the lower level of the atmosphere causing an overall increase in temperatures
Global Warming & Acid Rain Two negative consequences of burning fossil fuels
CFCs Human generated substance that damages the ozone layer
Filters harmful UV rays Important function of the ozone layer
Montreal Protocol Global agreement to reduce and finally halt the production of CFCs
Kyoto Protocol International agreement to limit greenhouse gases
Signed, but not ratified Status of the U.S. regarding the Kyoto Protocol
Decrease Discharges, Increase Environmental Capacity Two ways of reducing pollution
PL 480 U.S. program that helps LDCs import food
Created by: noelle915