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Systemic Anatomy

Autonomic Nervous System

The ANS controls the function of what? Smooth Muscle, Glands, and Cardiac Muscle
True or False, the ANS makes an organ function? False, the ANS does not make the organ function, it controls how it functions
What is a neuroeffector tissue? Excitable tissues effected by the nervous system
What effect does the ANS have on Cardiac Muscle? It effects the rate of contraction
In smooth muscle, which type is connected by gap junctions and act as a unit? Single Unit smooth muscle acts a unit versus multi unit contract individually
What effect does the ANS have on glandular epithelium? Secretion is controlled by the ANS
The Somatic Nervous System has what type of neuroeffector tissues? Skeletal Muscle versus the ANS neuroeffector tissues are smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands
What are the two subdivisions of the ANS? Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
What is thoracolumbar referring to? The sympathetic nervous system
Where is the sympathetic ns located? lateral horms of T1-L2
Where is the parasympathetic ns located? brain stem and sacral segments S2-4
What causes the whitish color of White Rami Communicantes? Myelin
Where can white rami communicante be found? On spinal nerves T1-L2
Where can you find Gray Rami Communicantes? In all spinal nerves
What is a ganglion? Collection of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS
What are the two types of sympathetic peripheral ganglia? Paravertebral Ganglia and Prevertebral Ganglia
Paravertebral ganglia are also known as two other names what are they? Sympathetic Chain Ganglia & Sympatheic Trunk
What spinal segments form the the Greater Splanchnic Nerve? T4-9
Give the route of a typical preganglionic neuron fiber from spinal cord to paravertebral ganglia? Myelinated GVE axons leave the spinal cord to form the ventral roots, then continue on in the spinal nerve, then the GVE neurons exit the spinal nerve in the white rami and and then enter the paravertebral chain. At this point they can do 1 of 4 things.
Once a preganglionic neuron has traveled from the spinal cord to the paravertebral ganglia what are the 4 possible routes it can take from here? 1. Synapse in the chain at the same level 2. Ascend or descend down the chain to synapse with a postganglionic neuron 3. Pass through the chain without synapsing and forms the splanchnic nerves. 4. Pass through chain & synapse in the Adrenal Medula T10-11
post gangnlionic fibers from the Superior Mesenteric ganglion innervate what? The small intestine and colon
Post ganglionic fibers from the Inferior Mesenteric Ganglion innervate what? The distal Colon, Rectum, Urinary Bladder, and Genital Organs
The Adrenal gland is also known as what? The Suprarenal Gland
The Adrenal Gland releases which neurotransmitters? Norepinephrine and Epinephrine
What are the effects of sympathetic stimulation? Mydriasis (pupil dilation), Increase HR and force of contraction, Elevated blood glucose, bronchodilation, Increase blood flow to skeletal muscle, Cutaneus vasoconstriction, Pilo Erection, Diaphoresis (excessive sweating)
What CN have parasympathetic function? CNIII, VII, IX, X
There is no parasympathetic input to sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels of the skin, skeletal muscle, upper or lower limbs, True or False True
Where is the Superior Salivatory Nucleus located? Pons
Where is the Inferior Salivatory nucleus located? In hte medulla at the pontomedullary junction
Where is the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus located? Beneath the floor of the 4th ventricle in the dorsal medulla
What does the Dorsal Motor Nucleus of the Vagus innervate? Visceral organs of the thorax and abdomen
What sacral segments give rise to parasympathetic GVE neurons? S2-4
Name the 4 parasympathetic peripheral ganglia and the CN they are associated with? 1. Ciliary Ganglion - CNIII 2. Pterygopalatine or Submandibular - CNVII 3. Otic Ganglion - CN IX 4. Terminal Ganglion - CNX
What does the Ciliary Ganglion innervate? Smooth Muscles of the Eye - Miosis
What does the Pterygopalatine or Submandibular Ganglion innervate? Lacrimal Gland, Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Glands
What does the Otic Ganglion innervate? Parotid Salivary Gland
What does the Terminal Ganglion innervate? Thoracic & Abdominal Viscera
What are the effects of Parasympathetic Stimulation Miosis, Salivation, Increased Peristalsis and GIT Secretions, Bronchoconstrction, Erection
Which division of the ANS is considered to be the "fight or flight response"? Sympathetic NS
Which division of the ANS is considered to be the "resting and digesting"? Parasympathetic NS
Which division of the ANS prepares the body to cope with intense physica activity? Sympathetic NS
Which division of the ANS responds with a diffuse whole body control designed to be turned on and off? Sympathetic NS
Which division of the ANS provides finite control of visceral function? Parasympathetic NS
Name the 3 most common neurotransmitters of the ANS? Acetylcholine (ACH), Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine
Which neurotransmitter is released from all preganglionic neurons and all postganglionic parasympahtic neurons? ACH
What does Cholinergic mean? relating to nerve cells that release ACH or receptors that respond to ACH
Postganglionic Sympathetic Fibers innervate what? Eccrine Sweat Glands, BV in skeletal muscles, somatic neurons to skeletal muscle (not part of ANS)
What is acetylcholinesterase? An enzyme that breaks down ACH
Name the chemical steps to form Epinephrine? Tyrosine - DOPA - dopamine - norepinephrine - epinephrine
Name 3 catecholamines? Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine
What is the term that describes neurons that release or have recptors that respond to norepinephrine or epinephrine? Adrenergic
What is MAO? Monoamine Oxidase - MAO breaks down catecholamines by oxidation
What percent of Norepinehrine that is released is re-uptaked back into the axon and then broken down by MAO? 80%
Other than MAO what is another enzyme that breaks down catecholamines and where is it located? COMT - Catechol-O-methyl transferase is locted in the synaptic space
Where are muscarinic receptors located? On neuroeffector tissues (Smooth Muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Glands)
What neurotransmitter does Muscarinc receptors respond to? ACH
Where are Nicotinic receptors located? Postganglionic neurons located in the Autonomic Ganglia & on skeletal motor end plate not part of the ANS
What neurotransmitter effects nicotininc receptors? ACH
Adrenergic Receptors respond to which neurotransmitters? Noriepinphrine and Epinephrine
What are the four types of Adrenergic receptors? Alpha 1 and 2, Beta 1 and 2
Name the location and effects of each type of Adrenergic receptors Alpha 1 - blood vessels - vasoconstriction, Alpha 2 - presynaptic - autoinhibitory, Beta 1 - excitatory to the heart, chronotrope and inotrope, release renin, relax smooth muscle in gut
What is an example of complimentary effects of the ANS? Salivary Secretions
What is an exapmle cooperative effects of teh ANS? Erection, and Urinary Bladder constriction
What is an example of antagonistic effects of the ANS? HR & Contarction of the Heart, Dilation and Constriction of the pupil, Peristalsis of the intestine
What organs are dually innervated by the Sympathetic NS and the Parasympathetic NS? Heart, pupil of the eye, intestine, and bronchials of the lung
What organs only have sympathetic innervation? Adrenal Medulla, Arrector Pilli, Sweat Glands, and Blood Vessels
Created by: Brad Hall



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