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Stack #85439, Ch 18

Chabner Ch 18 WWC JJ

QuestionAnswer
The parathyroid glands are located_______the thyroid gland. behind
adren/o adrenal glands = positioned above the kidneys; secretes adrenaline/epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenal/o adrenal glands = positioned above the kidneys; secretes adrenaline/epinephrine and norepinephrine
calc/o calcium
cortic/o cortex, outer region
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
estr/o female
gluc/o glucose; sugar
glyc/o glucose; sugar
gonad/o sex glands (ovaries and testes)
home/o sameness
kal/i potassium (an electrolyte)
hormon/o hormone = chemical messenger
insulin/o insulin
lact/o milk
myx/o mucus
natr/o sodium (an electrolyte)
pancreat/o pancreas = postioned near stomach, secretes insulin and glucagon
parathyroid/o parathyroid gland = positioned on back of thyroid gland; secrete parathyroid hormone(PTH; increases blood calcium
phys/o growing
pituitar/o pituitary gland, hypophysis = positioned at the base of the brain; divided into anterior and posterior portions; numerous hormones
somat/o body
ster/o solid structure
thyr/o thyroid gland = two lobes positioned on either side of the trachea; secrete thyroxine/tetraiodothyronine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) for metabolism and produce calcitonin to reduce calcium level in blood
thyroid/o thyroid gland = two lobes positioned on either side of the trachea; secrete thyroxine/tetraiodothyronine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) for metabolism and produce calcitonin to reduce calcium level in blood
toc/o childbirth
toxic/o poison
ur/o urine
-agon assemble; gather together
-ectomy removal; excision; resection
-emia blood condition
-genic produced by or in
-in a substance
-ine a substance
-megaly enlargement
-oid resembling
-osis abnormal condition
-physis to grow
-stasis to stop; control; place
-tocin labor; birth (a substance for)
-tropin stimulating the function of (to turn or act upon)
-uria urnie condition
eu- good; normal
hyper- above; excessive
hypo- deficient; below; under; less than normal
oxy- rapid, sharp, acid
pan- all
poly- many
tetra- four
tri- three
adenectomy removal of a gland
adrenopathy disease of adrenal glands
adrenalectomy removal of an adrenal gland
gonadotropin hormone that is secreted from the pituitary gland and acts on the gonads (ovaries and testes).
hypogonadism condition of decreased function of the gonads, with decreased growth and sexual development
pancreatectomy removal of the pancreas
parathyroidectomy removal of the parathyroid glands
hypopituitarism condition resulting from decreased secretion by the pituitary gland
thyrotropin hormone hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that acts on the thyroid gland (TSH or thyroid-stimulating hormone).
thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
androgen hormone producing or stimulating male characteristics (e.g., testosterone).
hypercalcemia increased calcium in the blood
hypocalcemia decreased calcium in the blood
corticosteroid any of the hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
endocrinologist specialist in diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders
polydipsia condition of excessive thirst
estrogenic pertaining to having properties similar to estrogen (producing estrogen-like effects).
glucagon hormone from the pancreas that causes sugar to be released into the bloodstream when blood sugar levels are low
hyperglycemia blood condition of increased sugar
glycemic pertains to sugar in the blood
glycogen an animal starch; produced from sugar by the liver
homeostasis state of equilibrium (constancy) of the body’s internal environment
hormonal pertaining to hormones
hypoinsulinism condition of deficient insulin
hypokalemia low levels of potassium in the blood
prolactin hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that promotes the growth of breast tissue and stimulates milk production
myxedema condition of mucous-like swelling of the face and soft tissues; due to hyposecretion of the thyroid gland in adults
hyponatremia blood condition of deficiency of sodium
hypophysectomy removal of the pituitary gland
somatotropin hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and tissues (growth hormone)
steroid an organic (containing carbon) compound with a ring structure; bile acids, vitamin D, certain hormones
oxytocin hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates childbirth
thyrotoxicosis condition of increased secretion from the thyroid gland with symptoms such as sweating, rapid pulse, tremors, and exophthalmos
antidiuretic hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; causes water to be retained in the body
glucagon hormone from the pancreas that “assembles” sugar from starch and increases blood sugar when it is low
epinephrine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; raises blood pressure
adrenocorticotropin hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormones
glycosuria condition of sugar in the urine
euthyroid normal thyroid function
oxytocin hormone from the neurohypophysis that stimulates childbirth
panhypopituitarism condition of deficient secretion of all hormones from the pituitary gland
tetraiodothyronine thyroid gland hormone containing 4 atoms of iodine; thyroxine; T4
triiodothyronine thyroid gland hormone containing 3 atoms of iodine; T3
hyperthyroidism overactivitiy of the thyroid gland
hypothyroidism underactivity of the thyroid gland
thyroid carcinoma cancer of the thyroid gland
hyperparathyroidism excessive production of parathormone
hypoparathyroidism deficient production of parathyroid hormone
hyperinsulinism excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
diabetes mellitus lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch and fat metabolism in cells; sugar remains in blood and is not taken into cells (Type I is childhood onset; Type 2 is adult onset)
acromegaly enlargement of the extremities (acro means extremities) caused by hypersecretion of GH by anterior pituitary after puberty
gigantism hyperfunctioning of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of the body
dwarfism congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
panhypopituitarism all pituitary hormones are deficient
diabetes insipidus insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
radioactive iodine uptake clinical procedure where radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake into the thyroid gland is measured as evidence of thyroid function
ACTH adrenocorticotropin hormone; secreted by anterior pituitary; stimulates secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex, especially cortisol
ADH antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin); secreted by posterior pituitary; stimulates reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone; secreted by anterior pituitary; stimulates ovaries for oogenesis and testes for spermatogenesis
GH growth hormone (somatotropin); secreted by anterior pituitary; stimulates increase in bone and tissue growth
LH luteinizing hormone; secreted by anterior pituitary; promotes ovulation; promotes testosterone secretion
OT oxytocin; secreted by posterior pituitary; stimulates contraction of the utereus during labor and childbirth
PRL prolactin; promotes growth of breast tissue and promotes milk secretion
PTH parathyroid hormone (parathormone); secreted by parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium
TSH thryoid-stimulating hormone; secreterd by anterior pituitary; stimulates production of thyroxine and growth of the thyroid gland
thyroxine tetraiodothyronine, T4; secreted by thyroid; increases metabolism in body cells
tetraiodothyronine thyroxine, T4; secreted by thyroid; increases metabolism in body cells
triiodothyronine T3; secreted by thyroid; increases metabolism in body cells
calcitonin secreted by thyroid; lowers blood calcium
cortisol a glucocorticoid; secreted by adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar
aldosterone a mineralcorticoid; secreted by adrenal cortex; increases reabsorption of sodium in kidney tubules
sex hormones: androgens and estrogens gonadocorticoids; secreted by adrenal cortex; maintain secondary sex characteristics
epinephrine adrenaline; secreted by adrenal medulla; increases heart rate, dilates bronchial tubes, stimulates production of glucose from glycogen storage
norepinephrine noradrenaline; secreted by adrenal cortex; constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure
insulin secreted by pancreas islet cells; decreases blood sugar (glucose to glycogen)
glucagon secreted by pancreas islet cells; increases blood sugar (glycogen to glucose)
estrogen secreted by ovaries; develops and maintains female secondary sex characteristics
progesterone secreted by ovaries; prepares and maintains the uterus in pregnancy
testosterone secreted by testes; promotes growth and maintenace of secondary sex characteristics
Created by: jjanis1