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Bio110 Chapter 7

Muscular System

QuestionAnswer
The muscular system provides _______ & mobility movement
The muscular system provides movement & ________ mobility
The muscular system produces ____ to maintain the body's temperature Heat
The muscular system includes three types of muscle, they are Skeletal, smooth, & cardiac muscles
Muscle cells are specialized for __________ contraction
Muscle fibers ________ to produce movement shorten or contract
Muscles ONLY ____ to bring about movement pull
Muscle cells are called myocytes
The brain recruits higher numbers of muscle ______ to produce the desired movement fibers
Skeletal muscles are ____________ muscles voluntary
________ anchors muscle to bone and other muscles Tendons
Tendons anchor _______ to _____ and other muscles muscle to bone
Tendons are made of fibrous ___________ tissue connective
Flat sheet-like tendons are called aponeurosis
Tendons are a continuation of _____ _____ that covers muscle deep fascia
The tendons merge with the _________ to anchor to bone periosteum
The _____ is where the muscle originates origin
The origin is where the muscle ________ originates
The origin is usually the more ___________ of the two ends and usually more proximal stationary
The __________ is the opposite end of the origin and crosses a joint insertion
The opposite end of the muscle from the origin is the insertion
The primary mover muscle is called The protagonist
The protagonist muscle is the ______ mover primary
The muscle that does the opposite of the desired movement is called the antagonist
The antagonist brings about the ______ of the primary muscles movement opposite
A _________ is a secondary muscle/s that help bring about the desired movement of the primary mover synergist
The synergist is a _________ muscle that brings about the desired movement secondary
The _____ lobes of the brain initiate the signal to the muscle frontal
The ___________ coordinates the movements of muscles cerebellum
The cerebellum _________ the movements of muscles coordinates
Muscle tone is the slight __________ of muscle that is present most of the time contraction
The slight contraction of muscle that is present most of the time is responsible for muscle tone
____________ is heat production from normal muscle metabolism Thermogenesis
Thermogenesis is ____ production from normal muscle metabolism heat
Thermogenesis produces heat in the muscles by decomposition reactions & ________ friction
Increased activity increases thermogenesis
Proprioception is also known as _______ _____ Muscle sense
Muscle sense is also known as Proprioception
Proprioception is the brain's awareness of the position of the _______ and the _____ muscle and the joint
______ receptors send signals to the brain for proprioception stretch
Stretch receptors send signals to the brain for proprioception
What four organ systems are essential for proper functioning of the muscular system? Skeletal, respiratory,circulatory, & nervous systems
_______ receptors detect changes in the length of the muscle stretch
Stretch receptors detect changes in the _______ of the muscle length
The primary energy source for muscles is ATP
ATP is the _______ energy source for muscles primary
Creatine phosphate and glycogen are muscles _______ source of energy secondary
Creatine phosphate and _______ are muscles secondary source of energy glycogen
________ is the most abundant energy source for muscles Glycogen
Glycogen is broken down into _______ for cellular respiration glucose
Cellular respiration is glucose + O2 -> CO2 + ___ + ATP + heat H2O
Hemoglobin carries O2 in the ______ blood
Myoglobin carries oxygen to the _______ muscle
Myoglobin makes the muscles a darker ___ red
________ stores oxygen to the muscles myoglobin
When the oxygen need is greater than the supply, it creates _______ ____ oxygen debt
Oxygen debt is created with the oxygen _____ is greater than the _______ need, supply
During oxygen debt glucose is converted into _____ ____ in anaerobic respiration Lactic acid
Lactic acid is converted to _______ _____ in the liver pyruvic acid
Breathing to supply the oxygen required by the liver to detoxify lactic acid is called Recovery oxygen uptake
Recovery oxygen uptake is the result of _______ debt oxygen
The muscle fiber is the microscopic structure of the _______ cell muscle
The neuromuscular junction is where you will find the _____ nerve ending for each muscle fiber motor
The motor nerve ending connection for each muscle fiber is called the _____________ junction neuromuscular
The motor end plate is the ________ ____ of the motor neuron enlarged end
The enlarged end of the motor neuron is called the _____ ____ ______ motor end plate
The motor end plate contains sacs of ___________ acetylcholine
Exercise that involves muscle contraction WITH movement is called isotonic
Isotonic exercise involves muscle contraction _____ movement with
Exercise that involves muscle contraction WITHOUT movement is called Isometric
Isometric exercise involve muscle contraction ________ movement without
Lactic acid is produced in muscles that lack ______ and it causes fatigue oxygen
When oxygen is not present in contraction muscles, _____ ____ is formed and that causes fatigue lactic acid
The term oxygen debt refers to a lack of oxygen during the process of ____ _________ cell respiration
The lack of of oxygen during cell respiration causes something referred to as _______ ____ oxygen debt
In the neuromuscular junction, the ____ _______ is the end of the motor neuron Axon terminal
IN the neuromuscular junction, the _______ is the space between the axon terminal and the muscle cell membrane synapse
In the neuromuscular junction, the ________ is the membrane of the muscle fiber sarcolemma
In the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is contained within the ___ _______ axon terminal
IN the neuromuscular junction, cholinesterase is contained within the __________ sarcolemma
In the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine is inactivated by cholinesterase
The units of contraction within a muscle fiber are called sarcomeres
The sarcomeres are the units of _________ within a muscle fiber contraction
Within the muscle fiber, the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains ______ ___ calcium ions
Within a sarcomere, the contracting proteins are _____ & _______ actin & myosin
During polarization, _______ ions are abundant outside the muscle fiber and ________ ions are abundant inside sodium, potassium
During depolarization of a muscle fiber, _______ ions rush _______ the cell Sodium, into
During depolarization of a muscle fiber, there is a ______ charge outside the membrane and a ________ charge inside negative, positive
During repolarization of a muscle fiber, ______ ions rush ______ the cell potassium, out of
Depolarization of a muscle fiber is stimulated by _________ that allows the entry of sodium ions acetylcholine
In the sliding filament mechanism, _______ filaments pull actin toward the center of the sarcomere myosin
In the sliding filament mechanism, the inhibiting proteins are troponin and _________ tropomyosin
Troponin and tropomyosin are the _________ proteins inhibiting
The cell membrane of the muscle fiber is called the sarcolemma
The sarcolemma contains _______ sites for acetylcholine receptor
The sarcolemma contains ____________ that deactivates acetylcholine cholinesterase
The _______ is the junction between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber sarcolemma synapse
The synapse is also known as the ______ _____ synaptic cleft
The contractile unit of the muscle fiber is called a sarcomere
Groups of sarcomeres are called myofibrils
Myofibrils are groups of __________ sarcomeres
_____ is also known as thin filaments actin
Actin is also known as _____ filaments thin
_____ is thin contractile protein that interacts with myosin Actin
Actin is thin contractile protein that interacts with myosin
Myosin is also known as _______ filaments thick
_____ is also known as thick filaments myosin
The protein backbone that anchors actin filaments is called the _-____ z-line
The z-line is the protein backbone that anchors ____ filaments actin
The z-line forms the end boundaries of the ________ sarcomere
The end boundaries of the sarcomere are formed by the _-____ z-line
The protein that anchors myosin to the z-line is called Titin
Titin is the protein that anchors ______ to the z-line myosin
_______ & _________ are the inhibitory proteins that prevent contraction or sliding when a muscle is relaxed troponin & tropomyosin
The endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle cell is called _______ _______ sarcoplasmic reticulum
The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the ________ reticulum of the muscle cell endoplasmic
The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores ______ ions calcium
Calcium ions are stored in the _________ _______ of the muscle cell sarcoplasmic reticulum
Sarcolemma polarization requires ___ ATP
ATP is required in _________ polarization sarcolemma
The _-_______ are channels that carry the action potential to the inner parts of the cell T-tubules
Muscle contraction is made possible by the _______ filament mechanism sliding
Reducing the angle of a joint is called Flexion
Increasing the angle of a joint is called Extension
Tilting the foot/ankle medially is called Inversion
Tilting the foot/ankle laterally is called Eversion
Rotating the palm up is called Supination
Rotating the palm down is called Pronation
Lateral flexion is ____ bending side
Rotating around a joint is called Rotation
Moving in a circular motion without rotating is called Circumduction
Moving in a _______ motion without rotating is called circumduction circular
Bringing a part away from the midline is called Abduction
Abduction is when you bring a part _____ from the midline away
Bringing a part toward the midline is called Adduction
Adduction is when you bring a part _____ from the midline toward
Bringing a part toward the midline or posteriorly is called Retraction
Retraction is when you bring a part _____ the midline or posteriorly Toward
Bringing a part away from the midline or anteriorly is called Protraction
Protraction is when you bring a part _____ from the midline or anteriorly away
Moving something on a level plane is called Translation
Decreasing the angle of the ankle joint is called Dorsiflexion
Translation is when something is moving on a ____ ____ level plane
Increasing the angle of the ankle is called Plantar flexion
Dorsiflexion is _________ the angle of the ankle joint decreasing
Plantar flexion is ______ the angle of the ankle joint increasing
To flex the arm the _____ ______ contract to pull the forearm up Biceps Brachii
To extend the arm the _____ ______ contract to straighten the arm Triceps Brachii
When a muscle contracts it ________ and _____ a bone shortens & pulls
Muscles are attached to bones by ______ tendons
An antagonist to a muscle that flexes the arm would be a muscle that _______ the arm extends
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the __________ Cerebellum
The specific part of the brain that initiates muscles contraction is the _____ ____ Frontal lobe
During exercise, the blood flow within a muscles is increased by vasodilation
Synergistic muscles are those that have the same ________ function
An isometric contraction is one ________ movement without
An isotonic contraction is one _____ movement with
The mineral released within sarcomeres to trigger contraction is _______ calcium
Conscious muscle sense is integrated by the ______ lobes of the brain parietal
The ______ of a muscle merges with the periosteum that covers the bone tendon
The deltoid is the shoulder muscle that ______ the arm abducts
Good muscle tone improves ____________ and helps maintain posture coordination
In the muscle when glycogen is used for energy, it is first broken down to glucose
The axon terminal is the end of the _____ neuron motor
Acetylcholine makes the sarcolemma very permeable to ________ ions sodium
Increase cell respiration produces more heat, ___ and carbon dioxide ATP
During exercise, increased respiration is necessary to exhale excess _______ _______ carbon dioxide
Oxygen is brought to muscle fibers by __________ in red blood cells hemoglobin
The sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium ions following ______________ depolarization
During depolarization, the inside of the sarcolemma becomes Positive
Antagonistic muscles are on _______ sides of a joint opposite
A ________ is a sustained contraction of one muscle fiber tetanus
A tetanus is a _________ contraction of one muscle fiber sustained
Muscle sense is the brain's mental picture of where ________ are in their environment muscles
___________ causes depolarization of the sarcolemma Acetylcholine
Muscle ____________ are responsible for skeletal movement contractions
Muscle contraction requires delivery of oxygen by the ___________ system circulatory
_________ muscles work together Synergistic
The _____________ muscle plantar flexes the foot gastrocnemius
The ________ muscle closes the jaw masseter
The gluteus _______ muscle abducts the thigh medius
The __________ muscle raise the shoulder Trapezius
The mineral on myoglobin and hemoglobin that oxygen sticks to is iron
The opposite of flexion is extension
The opposite of extension is flexion
The opposite of abduction is Adduction
The opposite of adduction is abduction
The opposite of pronation is supination
The opposite of supination is pronation
The opposite of plantar flexion is Dorsiflexion
The opposite of dorsiflexion is Plantar Flexion
Uncontrolled rapid nerve impulses that prolong a muscles contraction is called tetanus
________ ions are more abundant inside the cell during polarization potassium
_______ releases energy from ATP, then pulls the actin myosin
When a muscle fiber is relaxed, the sarcolemma has a _______ charge outside and a ______ charge inside Positive, negative
The concentrations of ions are maintained by ________ & _______ pumps during polarization, depolarization, and repolarization sodium & potassium
The structural units of contractions are sarcomeres
The proteins that contract when a muscle fiber receives a nerve impulse are ______ & _______ myosin & actin
The stretching of muscles is detected by ______ ________ stretch receptors
Besides strengthening skeletal muscles of the body, aerobic exercise also strengthens the ______ & ___________ muscles Heart & respiratory
Created by: pamela0116