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endocrine system 2

what is the name of the secretory cells associated with the pineal gland? pinealocytes
pinealocytes are associated with the _____________ fibers of the __________ division preganglionic, sympathetic
pinealocytes are surrounded by the ___ _____ pia mater
producers and secretors of melatonin and adrenoglomerulotropin pinealocytes
the pineal gland begins to calcify at puberty, forming _____ _____ brain sands
brain sands are associated with a ________ in melatonin production decrease
what increases melatonin production? dark
what inhibits melatonin production? light
when is melatonin production at its lowest point? noon
where is the pineal gland located? third ventricle of the brain
what type of hormone is melatonin? amine
which amino acid manufactures melatonin? tryptophan
name the five functions of melatonin regulate circadian rhythms prevent aging antioxidant enhance immunity inhibit gonadotropic hormones
what do gonadotropic hormones do in children? regulate timing of puberty
how is melatonin associated with seasonal depression and jet lag? the decrease in light during winter stimulates melatonin production disruption in circadian rhythm, which is regulated by melatonin
what type of hormone is adrenoglomerulotropin? P&P
what is the function of adrenoglomerulotropin? stimulates the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex
the hypophysis is also referred to as what? pituitary gland
the epiphysis cerebri is also referred to as what? pineal gland
which gland is commonly called the master gland? pituitary
where is the pituitary gland located? hypophyseal fossa of the sella turnica
what controls the hormonal secretions of the hypophysis? the hypothalamus
what is the infundibulum? a stalk-like structure that connects the pituitary gland to the frontal lobe
the hypophysis has ___ lobes, seperated by the ____ _____ two, pars intermedia
the anterior lobe of the hypophysis is called what? the adenohypophysis
the adenohypophysis is controlled __________ hormonally
the posterior lobe of the hypophysis is called what? neurohypophysis
the neurohypophysis is controlled ________ neurally
the adenohypophysis is comprised of _ troph cells 5
what does somatotroph secrete, and what color does it stain? hGH, red
what does lactotroph secrete, and what color does it stain? PRL, red
what does thyrotroph secrete, and what color does it stain? TSH, blue
what hormones do gonadotroph secrete, and what color does it stain? FSH and LH, blue
what hormones do corticotroph cell secrete? MSH and ACTH
what controls troph cell secretion? hypothalamus
name the 2 regulating factors of adenohypophyseal hormone control releasing & inhibiting
what type of hormones are the regulating factors of the adenhypophysis? P&Ps
what is a tropic hormone? a hormone that acts on another endocrine gland or tissue to secrete another hormone
if an adenohypophyseal hormone is classified as tropic, it will be governed by _________ factor only releasing
if an adenohypophyseal hormone is classified as non-tropic, it will be governed by _________ and __________ factors releasing & inhibiting
series of blood vessels that link the hypothalamus to the adenohypophysis hypophyseal portal system
hGH is secreted by what? the somatotroph cell
what is the function of hGH? general body growth
is hGH tropic or non-tropic? non-tropic
what does hGHRH (somatocrinin) do? releases hGH
what does hGHIH (smonatostatin) do? inhibits hGH
hGH is a ____ catabolist, ____________ catabolist, and _______ anabolist lipid, carbohydrate, protein
what factors influence hGH release? increase in amino acids, decrease in glucose, decrease in fatty acids
what factors inhibit hGH release? decrease in amino acids, increase in glucose, increase in fatty acids
hGH increases at _____ night
hGH secretion _________ as we age decreases
what can the hypersecretion of hGH cause? gigantism, acromegaly
what can the hyposecretion of hGH cause? dwarfism, progeria
what does PRL do? acts on alveoli to produce milk
what type of hormone is PRL? P&P, non-tropic
what does PRH do? releases PRL
what does PIH (dopamine) do? inhibits PRL
what type of hormones are PRH and PIH? P&P
the influence of PIH dominates in _____ males
hypersecretion of PRL in males may cause ________ ___________ erectile dysfunction
PRL is affected by _________ swings in females estrogen
in females, a(n) __________ estrogen level leads to a _________ PRL level increased, decreased OR decreased, increased
name the signs and symptoms of PRL hypersecretion in females galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility
what is the function of TSH? stimulates the thyroid to produce T3 and T$
what type of hormone is TSH? P&P
is TSH tropic or non-tropic? tropic
through which hormone is TSH controlled? TRH
a(n) ________ in TRH leads to a(n) ________ in TSH increase, increase OR decrease, decrease
name three situations in which thyroid hormone secretion is increased pregnancy, decreased temperature, decreased blood levels of thyroid hormone
what is the function of FSH in females? oogenesis
what is the function of FSH in males? spermatogenesis
what type of hormone is FSH? P&P, tropic
through which hormone is the release of FSH controlled? GnRH
what is the function of LH in females? ovulation
what type of hormone is LH? P&P, tropic
what is the function of LH in males? testosterone release
which hormone controls the release of LH? GnRH
what will happen as a result of the hyposecretion of LH? decreased sexual maturation, inability to produce gametes
why is the corticotroph cell unusual? it secretes tropic and non-tropic hormones
what is the function of MSH? affects skin pigmentation
what type of hormone is MSH? P&P, non-tropic
which hormones control the release of MSH? MRH, MIH
what is the function of ACTH? acts on the zona fasiculata to increase cortisol secretion
what type of hormone is ACTH? P&P, tropic
which hormone controls the release of ACTH? CRH
CRH is a ________________ as well as a hormone neurotransmitter
name three things that stimulate the release of CRH stress, fever, hypoglycemia
name the two hormones secreted by the neurohypophysis OT & ADH
nerve impulses pass down the ________________________ tract to allow the release of either ADH or OT hypothalamohypophyseal
what is the function of OT? milk letdown, uterine contractions
________ information is often required for the release of OT sensory
what is an oxytocic and what are they used for? synthetic oxytocin stimulate uterine contraction, better milk letdown, prevent postpartum hemorrhage
how does OT affect sexual arousal? sexual arousal in sexually active individuals, "cuddle hormone" in non-sexually active individuals
what type of hormone is ADH? P&P
what is the function of ADH? regulates water balance
on what three structures does ADH act? DCT, salivary glands, blood vessels
what is another name for ADH? vasopressin
what happens to blood pressure in dehydration? ...edema? decreases, increases
what three factors will stimulate ADH? dehydration, low fluid intake, decreased blood pressure
what four factors will inhibit ADH? caffeine, diuretics, high water intake, edema
what will the hyposecretion of ADH cause? increased urination
what will the hypersecretion of ADH cause? decreased urination
Created by: mhaye26



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