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ATH 370 Paleoanth

PSU Paleoanthropology Mid Term N. Vasey

Paleoanthropology definition Interdisciplinary approach to the study of hominids. (narrowed definition)
Hominoid Member of the Superfamily Hominoidea. Includes all apes (living and fossil), our extinct bipedal relatives, and ourselves.
Hominid member of the family Hominidae. Includes the living great apes (Pongo, Gorilla and Pan), our extinct bipedal relatives, and ourselves.
Homininae member of the subfamily Homininae. Includes Pan, our extinct bipedal relatives, and ourselves.
Hominins member of the Tribe Hominini. Includes our extinct bipedal relatives and ourselves (no apes).
Miocene time frame 23 mya – 5 mya
Plio-Pleistocene time frame 5 mya to present. Pliocene 5 - 1.8 mya; Pleistocene 1.8 mya to present; Holocene 10,000 kya to present;
Pliocene time frame 5 - 1.8 mya
Pleistocene time frame 1.8 mya to present
Holocene time frame 10,000 kya to present
Prosimians Lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, Tarsiers
Anthropoids New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, Apes, humans
W. E. Le Gros Clark History of the Primates (1949); Adaptive trends versus lists of traits - i.e., enlarged brain, convergent orbits, grasping extremities, reduced olfaction, long postnatal growth; Arboreal theory of primate origins
Primate Characteristics Tropical or subtropical distribution; Generalized limbs; Prehensile hands and feet; Dentitions and diet relatively unspecialized; Heavy reliance on vision and large brain; Protracted life history pattern; Social groups common
Primate Limb Anatomy Retain clavicle; Retain five fingers and toes; Prehensile extremities for grasping branches; Nails, tactile pads, and dermatoglyphs; Divergent hallux and pollex; Hindlimb domination; Tarsi-fulcrumation & long heel bone;
Primate Sense Organs (1) Visual sense emphasized, olfaction reduced; Eyes large relative to skull length; Post-orbital bar; Stereoscopic vision and color vision: Orbital convergence --> binocular vision /Fibers passing to optic tectum balanced
Primate Sense Organs (2) Petrosal auditory bulla; Large brain with unique sulcal patterns; Brain large at all stages of gestation;
Primate Life History Traits Slow reproductive turnover; Long gest./small litters; Well-developed young; Slow fetal/post-natal growth; Sexual maturity comes late; long life span; Unique LH stages: adolesc., menop.; Greater dependence on learned,flexible behavior
Euprimates outline Eocene; Prosimians; Europe, North America, Asia, Africa; Reliance on vision; Living relatives are prosimian primates found in Asia, Africa, and Madagascar;
Euriprimates' Primate traits in the fossil record Post-orbital bar; Broad snout; Auditory bulla formed from petrosal bone; Small incisors, big canines OR vice versa; No large diastema; Opposable hallux; Nails; Larger brain;
Humans as Primates Extension of Primate Characters Pan-global distribution; Specializations of the hand; No highly specialized diets; Brain reorganization and enlargement; Drawn-out life history pattern; adolescence, menopause;
Humans as Primates Largely unique Traits Genetically uniform species (80 - 90% variation); Little sexual dimorphism (10-18%); Complete reliance on material culture (e.g., tools); Bipedal locomotion; Reduced body hair; No discrete estrus; Speech, language, and culture; whites
Humans as Primates Other Reproductive Traits Suppressed yolk-sac involvement in placentation; Early descent of scrotum into post- penial scrotum; No uro-genital sinus;
Cladogram Branching diagram based on synapomorphies
Phylogenetic tree Ancestor-descendent relationships; Time dimension
Evolutionary Scenario Evolutionary history; Narrative interpretation; Includes evolutionary forces at work that influences character states; Adaptation
Synapomorphies Traits shared by last common ancestor and all descendents
Autopomorphies Novel traits acquired by lineage after branching event
Symplesiomorphies Ancestral traits that existed in lineage prior to splitting event
Homologous Same evolutionary and developmental origin
Homoplasy Resemblance not due to inheritance from common ancestor; Parallel evolution; Convergent evolution; Analogy
Monophyletic groups Contains LCA and all descendents; Built on synapomorphies; Contain sister groups
Paraphyletic groups Use of symplesiomorphies; Contains common ancestor but not ALL descendents
Polyphyletic groups Use of convergent characters
Character Polarity Variation along continuum; Ancestral to derived state; Examine development of trait (ontogeny); Examine trait in related groups; Most common form likely primitive
Evolutionary Systematics George Gaylord Simpson; Phylogenetic trees; Classification reflects more than branching; Divergence; Ancestor-descendent relationships; Synapomorphic and automorphic characters important
Cladistics/phylogenetic systematics Willi Hennig; Cladograms; Classification reflects order of branching and distribution of certain characters; Synapomorphic characters only
Cladistic Primate suborders Strepsirrhini; Haplorhini
Gradistic Primate suborders Prosimia; Anthropoidea
Phyletic gradualism (anagenesis) Speciation progresses via small changes; Transformation slow; Speciation via allopatry (mainly); Most or all of geographic range; Gaps in fossil record may be artifacts
Punctuated Equilibrium Speciation arises from rapid lineage splitting; Transformation is rapid; Small, isolated population (allopatric); New species enters stasis; Gaps in fossil record are real
Plio-Pleistocene Climates: Glacial Stratigraphy Pleistocene had highly variable climate; Glacials, interstadials, and interglacials affect sea levels; Glaciers transform landscape (E.g. Messinian salinity crisis); Glacial dust (loess), glacial till, and varves (Used to reconstruct prehistoric time scal
Plio-Pleistocene Climates: Deep-Sea Cores Deep sea sedimentation is continuous; Oxygen-isotope analysis (18o/16o); Carbon isotope analysis;
Oxygen-isotope analysis Reflects ice volume and ocean temperature; 18o accumulates in ocean in glacial periods; 16o accumulates in glaciers in glacial periods; Same principal applies to calcareous shells
Carbon isotope analysis 13c accumulates in ocean in warm phases; 12c accumulates in land plants in warm phases
Causes of Climate Change Continental Drift-Formation of ocean gateways leads to cooling, Uplift/erosion of mtn ranges and plateaus leads to inequable climates over the earth (Himalayas/Tibetan Plateau);Changes in earth’s orbit around sun- eccentricity,tilt,precession of equinoxes
Base of Pliocene 5.3 MYA - Paleomagnetic data & Messinian salinity crisis
Base of Pleistocene 1.8 MYA - Originally defined via fossil molluscs
Middle Pleistocene 900 KYA - Defined by glacial stratigraphy
Late Pleistocene 127 KYA - defined by glacial stratigraphy
Plio-Pleistocene time scales refined via advances in glacial stratigraphy, oxygen-isotope, stratigraphy, geomagnetic polarity reversal stratigraphy, and radiometric dating
Effects of Climate on Hominin Evolution Transitional ecological zones in Africa?; Fringe Environment Model; Climatic Forcing Model; Red Queen Model; Variability Selection; Pattern of hominin evolution result of both climatic and intra- and inter- specific competition
Basic Functions of Bone Support; Protection; Movement; Mineral storage; Blood cell formation
Why Date Fossil Sites? Species age, duration, and phylogeny; Track change: biotic and abiotic factors; Track origins of culture and culture change in human evolution; Track change in species assemblages, environments, and hominid behavior in tandem with each other
Relative dating Puts fossils and artifacts into temporal context with other locally associated faunal, floral, and archaeological material
Relative Dating additional information Developed before absolute dating; Order fossils or artifacts in temporal sequence relative to each other; Law of Superposition; Objects found in same stratigraphic level are contemporaneous; Faunal correlation and Land Mammal Ages
mesial (dentition) towards the incisors
distal (dentition) towards the molars
lingual (dentition) inside (tongue side)
labial (dentition) outside, touching the lips
buccal (dentition) outside, touching the cheeks
Protocone mesiolingual cusp of the maxillary molars
Paracone mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary molars
Metacone distobuccal cusp of the maxillary molars
Hypocone distolingual cusp of the maxillary molars
Protoconid mesiobuccal cusp of the mandibular molars
Metaconid mesiolingual cusp of the mandibular molars
Hypoconid distobuccal cusp of the mandibular molars
Entoconid distolingual cusp of the mandibular molars
Hypoconulid distal cusp of the mandibular molars, centered betweed the Hypoconid and the Entoconid
Axial Skeleton (postcranial) vertebrae, sacrum, sternum, ribs
Appendicular Skeleton (postcranial) limbs and girdles (scapulae, clavicles, pelvis...)
Relative Dating + Chemistry measure Measure nitrogen, flourine, and uranium concentrations in bones found in same deposits; Nitrogen content decreases with time; Fluoroapatite increases with time; Both tests are site-specific
Relative Dating + Absolute Dating Identify well-known fossil lineages (Horses, Suidae, Bovidae); Determine which species from the lineage are associated with hominids; Compare those species to similar species from other sites which have absolute dates
What can absolute dating do? Determines age of fossils, artifacts, or rocks in years before present (BP)
Absolute Dating: Radiometric Techniques - Most date strata associated with what? fossils
How does absolute dating date fossils? --> by bracketing the fossil: dating strata above and below
How do radiometric techniques work (in general)? Atoms of radioactive elements (isotopes) decay at known, constant rate into stable isotopes (can be of another element); Age of rock determined with ratio of Parent to Daughter atoms and half life; Often use rock formed with none of Daughter atoms present
Seven Radiometric Techniques Carbon – 14 (14C); Potassium-Argon (K-Ar); Argon-Argon (40Ar-39Ar); Uranium Series (U-S); Fission Track; Thermoluminescence; Electron Spin Resonance
Carbon – 14 (14C) Can date any once-living carbon containing materials; Wood, charcoal, bone, shell, peat; 200 – 50,000 years BP (max. 70 KYA); 14C atoms in carbon dioxide enter plants through photosynthesis or root absorption and are passed on to feeding animals
Potassium-Argon (K-Ar) and/or Argon-Argon (40Ar-39Ar) Volcanic ash (tuff), igneous rock (lava); 100,000 BP to oldest rocks on earth; Use rock formed with none of daughter atoms present; Half life ~ 1.3 BY; Tephrostratigraphy
Uranium Series (U-S) Chemically or biologically precipitated calcium carbonate formation; Travertine, speleothems, shell, coral; 150,000-350,000 BP; 230Th-234U, thorium-uranium; 231Pa-235U, protactinium-uranium; 234U-238U, uranium-uranium
Fission Track Naturally formed glass and volcanic minerals such as micas, apatite, and zircon; rocks of all ages, Pottery containing mineral crystals; fired obsidian; count damage-tracks formed by spontaneous fission of atomic nucleus in 238U - i.e. tracks/unit volume
Thermoluminescence Pottery, glass, bones, shells, minerals heated by fires (flint, quartz tools); Electrons trapped in lattice of crystals after irradiation event (firing, exposure to sunlight). Trapped electrons measured and divided by accumulation rate.
Electron Spin Resonance tooth enamel, shells, coral; Electrons trapped by absorption of microwave radiation; Trapped electrons measured and divided by accumulation rate; 3000 BP – 300,000 BP
Three Non-Radiometric Techniques Non-radiometric Techniques Varves; Paleomagnetic stratigraphy; Amino acid racemization
Varves Date items contained in their sediment; Less than 80,000 BP (trace retreat of Last Glaciation in waning phase); Sediment band made of two subbands laid down annually in quiet glacier-fed lakes; Coarse and fine particles form subbands
Paleomagnetic Stratigraphy Intensity and direction of Earth’s magnetic field causes polarity shifts; Signature detectable in ferromagnetic particles in volcanic rock and in alignment of fine, slow-settling sediments on ocean floor; Must be calibrated with absolute dates
Amino Acid Racemization can date what? and in what time frame? Fossil bone, mollusk shells, ostrich eggs in deep sea sediments or deep, sealed caves; Up to 1 MY or more;
How does Amino Acid Racemization work? Proteins break down after death and amino acids convert from one form, optical isomer (L), to another form, optical isomer (D); Sensitive to temperature, moisture, chemical contaminants; must calibrate
Catarrhine Traits Catarrhine nostrils; Dental formula; Fronto-sphenoid contact; Tubular tympanic (EAM); Ischial callosities; No entepicondylar foramen
East Africa in the Miocene East African Rift System; Kisingiri and Tinderet Volcanos; Many lowland forest communities in early Miocene; Drier, more open habitats in middle Miocene
Eurasia in the Miocene Mountain-building in Himalayas; Tethys Sea recedes circa 20 MYA; Faunal exchange between Africa and Eurasia by middle Miocene; Seasonal environments & open country woodland more and more common by middle and late Miocene
Early Miocene Hominoids factoids ~23/24-16.5 MYA; Mainly Africa, but also in Asia; Proconsulidae (and Oreopithecidae); Main sites in East Africa: Koru, Rusinga Island, Mfwangano Island, and Songor in Kenya; other sites in Uganda
6 members of the family Proconsulidae Proconsul; Rangwapithecus; Limnopithecus; Dendropithecus; Micropithecus; Dionyspithecus
Proconsul (Genus) facts Four species (Proconsul africanus, Proconsul heseloni, Proconsul major, Proconsul nyanzae); Frugivorous; Sexually dimorphic canines; Postcrania best known in P. heseloni and P. nyanzae; Type site: Koru, Kenya, 1933
Proconsul postcrania - features shared with living hominoids No tail; No expanded ischial callosities; Distal humerus spool-shaped; Robust fibula; Thumb adapted for rotation and opposition
Proconsul postcrania - Features shared with living OWM Intermembral index 85-90; Hand and foot proportions; Long, flexible vertebral column; Narrow rib cage; Pronograde posture
Dendropithecus macinnesi 9 kilos; Frugivory and folivory; Quadrupedal and suspensory (long, slender limbs); Canine dimorphism
Afropithecus turkanensis 50 kilos; Thick enamel -- Hard seed eater?; Postcrania as in Proconsul; Phylogenetic relationships uncertain (Retention of primitive features for 14 MY; End member of lineage from Oligocene Affinities to middle Miocene apes)
Dionysopithecus From China and other parts of Asia; 3-4 kilos – smallest E. Miocene ape; Resembles Micropithecus from Africa; Gibbon-like in facial anatomy and sulcal patterns
Summary: Early Miocene Body size range 3.5 – 60 kilos; Tropical rain forest to open woodland; Niches of living OWM and apes; Frugivorous, folivorous, etc.; Arboreal, terrestrial, and suspensory; All catarrhine traits represented; Mosaic postcrania
Middle and Late Miocene Hominoids: where and when? Africa, Europe, and Asia; Middle Miocene, 16.5-10 MYA; Late Miocene, 10-5 MYA
5 Middle and Late Miocene Hominoid Families Hominidae (Homininae, Ponginae, Oreopithecinae); Griphopithecidae; Proconsulidae; Pliopithecidae; Incertae sedis
Dryopithecus Homininae; Europe(St. Gaudens); Mid-late Mio; 1st desc. over 150 YA; 15-45 kilos, some sexually dimorphic; Frugivore – broad, round molar cusps; Thin enamel, gracile canines/mandible; Shares many cranial and post-c features w/living great apes; orthograde
Ouranopithecus macedoniensis Hominidae; Homininae, Greece, Turkey, 9-10 MYA; 110 Kilos; Woodland, savannah habitat; Extremely thick molar enamel; Hard, gritty diet (nuts, tubers); Shares many cranial features with the living Great Apes
Sahelanthropus Hominidae; Homininae; Tribe: incertae sedis; Chad, 7MYA
Sivapithecus Proconsulidae; Ponginae; Siwaliks of India and Pakistan; 13-8 MYA (paleomag & fauna); 40-90 Kilos; Thick enamel - hard fruits, nuts, bark; Skull resembles orangutan (e.g., incisive foramen); Quadrupedal
Gigantopithecus Proconsulidae; Ponginae; late Miocene (India and Pakistan); Pleistocene (China and Vietnam); Largest primate ever, 190-225 Kilos; Thick enamel, deep mandibles; Hard, fibrous foods; Terrestrial
Oreopithecus bambolii Proconsulidae; Oreopithecinae; Italy; late Miocene 30 Kilos; Folivore with many unusual dental traits, e.g., centroconid; Highly suspensory with limb structure as in Great Apes - Parallelism?; Descendent of Nyanzapithecus?
Otavipithecus namibiensis Proconsulidae; Afropithecinae; Otavi Mountains, Namibia; 13 MYA (faunal date); 14-20 kg; Fauna attest humid climate; Thin enamel and reduced/no cingula; Non-abrasive foods (berries, soft food)
Griphopithecidae --> Griphopithecinae (3 members) Griphopithecus (Pasalar, Turkey, 15 MYA, also Slovakia and Germany); Kenyapithecus wickeri (Fort Ternan, Kenya, 14-12 MYA); Equatorius africanus (Maboko Island, Tugen Hills, Kenya, 15 MYA)
Kenyapithecus wickeri Griphopithecidae; Griphopithecinae; Fort Ternan and Maboko Island (?); Kenya; 14-12 MYA; Drier, more open woodland habitat; Broad, shallow, robust mandible with thick enamel on molars, reduced canines (more resistant foods); Semi-terrestrial adaptations
Equatorius africanus Griphopithecidae; Griphopithecinae; Tugen Hills and Maboko Island (?); Kenya; 15 MYA; Crania associated w/partial skeleton; 27 kg; Similar to E. Miocene Proconsul in many respects, but unique in others
Pliopithecus vindoboensis Pliopithecidae; Czech Republic; middle to late Miocene; 6-15 kilos; Frugi-folivory; Skull similar to gibbon, more primitive; Suspensory locomotion (IM index 94); Late member of early catarrhine radiation preceding split of OWM and apes
Cranial Traits of Many Middle/Late Miocene Apes Thick-enameled molars; Low rounded cusps (bunodont); Low-crowned, robust canines; Deep, robust mandibles & symphyses; Laterally flaring zygomatic arches; Shorter mandibles and premaxillae; M1 larger than M3
Middle to Late Miocene Hominoids facts more closely related to the ape-human lineage than to OWM; mostly large bodied; Most are probably not ancestors to any living form; One form shows facial features similar to the modern Orangutan, suggesting a phyletic link.
Are there homininis (tribe hominini) at miocene dated locales? No confirmed hominins from miocene dated locales, but some recently discovered fossils MAY be hominins.
Proconsul species (4) Proconsul africanus; Proconsul heseloni; Proconsul major; Proconsul nyanzae
Linking Miocene Apes to Modern Apes and Hominins: Miocene Hominoid Geographical Groupings (African forms) African forms (23-13 m.y.a.) - generalized, primitive hominoids from W. Kenya, Uganda, Namibia; European forms (mid-late Miocene)- researchers suggest. some forms are linked with the African ape/hominin clade;
Linking Miocene Apes to Modern Apes and Hominins: Geographical Groupings (Asian forms) Asian forms (16.5-7 m.y.a.) - lrgst and most varied group geographically; Gigantopithecus persists till Pleistocene.
Linking Miocene Apes to Modern Apes and Hominins: Molecular Data African apes more closely related to humans than to Pongo; Hylobates diverges 12-15 MYA (14 MYA by most rec. est.); Pongo diverges 10-12 MYA; African Apes diverge 5-6 MYA; By early Pliocene all known fossil hominoids are hominins (except Gigantopithecus)!
When did bipedal hominids appear in East Africa ~ 5.8 MYA
When did bipedal hominids appear in South Africa ~ 4 MYA
When and for how long did Austrolopithecus and Homo coexist? > 1 MY (~ 2.4-1.2 MYA)
Depositional Environment of South African Cave Sites Magnesium-containing limestone (dolomite) and calcareous deposits; Dolomite goes into solution, forming caves; Ground water drops; Openings appear in surface; Talus cone forms (sediment and bone); Sediment calcifies forming cave breccia
Taung South Africa; 1924; Limeworks site in Western Cape Province; Raymond Dart, Univ. Witswatersrand; Australopithecus africanus; Faunal date: 2.0-2.5 MYA; Semiarid; Bone accumulations by large birds of prey
Sterkfontein South Africa; 1936; Cave breccia near Johannesburg; Robert Broom, Transvaal Museum; Australopithecus africanus (e.g., Sts 5); Member 2 (3.3 MYA), 4 (~2.5 MYA), and 5 (~1.5 MYA); Southern Africa’s earliest stone tools; Riparian forest to open grasslands
Kromdraii South Africa; 1938; Cave breccia near Johannesburg; Robert Broom; Australopithecus robustus (TM 1517); Member 3 of Kromdraii B East Formation; Faunal date: 1-2 MYA; Early Acheulean/Developed Olduwan; Wooded environment & open grassland
Makapansgat S.A.; 1947; Limestone cavern in N. Transvaal Prov.; R. Dart; A. africanus; Members 3 and 4; Faunal date: 3.0-2.4 MYA; Bipedal; Bone accumulations by carnivore scavengers; Fluctuating climates: woodland, bush, savanna; later more open, drier climates
Swartkrans S.A.; 1948; Cave breccia near Jo'burg; Robert Broom, John Robinson, CK Brain; A. robustus; Members 1*, 2*, and 3(fire!); Thermolum. date: 1.0-1.8 MYA; Grassland & riv. woodland savanna; Accumulations by big cats; *Co-occurr. of A. robustus and Homo
Summary of South African Sites A. africanus assoc. with humid climes and thick veg; 3-2 MYA trans. to dryer climes and spread of grasslnd, > seasonality; A. africanus rep. by A. robustus; > 2.5 MYA - Taung, Makapansgat, Sterk. (ms. 2&4); < 2.5 MYA – Swart, Kromdraii, Sterk. (m. 5)
East African Hominin-bearing Deposits Ethiopia: Omo*, Middle Awash* (Hadar); Kenya: Lake Turkana*, Lake Baringo; Tanzania: Laetoli, Olduvai*; Chad: Bahr el Ghazal & Toros- Menalla in Djurab Desert *= both Austro. and Homo
Early Hominini Species in East Africa Orrorin tugensis*; Ardipithecus ramidus & Ar. kadabba; Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis, A. gahri*, A. boisei, A. aethiopicus; Kenyanthropus platyops*; (* = Species named since 1997)
Fossil Homininae (Tribe: incertae sedis) Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Chad), 6-7 MYA; Orrorin tugensis, Tugen Hills (Kenya), ~ 6 MYA
Sahelanthropus tchadensis Earliest member of hominini clade?; Mixture of primitive and derived traits; shows that Early hominins (or pre- hominins) were widespread
Hominins > 4 MYA A. afarensis?, Lothogam (Kenya), 5.6 MYA; Hominin teeth, Lake Baringo: Lukeino, Ngorora (Kenya), 5 MYA; A. anamensis, Kanapoi and Allia Bay (Kenya), 4.2-3.9 MYA; A. afarensis ?, Tabarin, Chemeron fm. (near Lake Baringo), 5 MYA;
Hominins > 4 MYA (cont.) Ardipithecus ramidus & Ar. kadabba, Aramis (Ethiopia), 4.4 & 5.8 MYA; A. afarensis ?, Fejej (S. Ethiopia), 4 MYA
Omo Group: Northern Turkana Basin Kenya and Ethiopia; 1966 (F. Clark Howell, Y. Coppens, R. Leakey); Longest and best dated hominin-bearing sed.; 3-1 MYA; Most hominid fossils in: Shungura and Usno Formations (Omo), Koobi Fora Formation (NE L. Turk.), Nachakui Formation (W L. Turk.)
Shungura and Usno Formations 700m, fluv./lacus./deltaic; 11 mem. sep. by ash layers; 3MYA–A. afarensis; 2.7-1.4MYA–Early H. and A. afaren.; 2.7-1.5MYA–A. aethiopicus/A. boisei; 1.5MYA - H. erec.; 2.4-2.3MYA-1st stone tools; lake, dry woods or sav. trans. to drier habitat by 2.3MYA
Koobi Fora Formation 1968; R. Leakey; 500 m, fluvial, lacustrine, deltaic; 8 members; 4-1.4 MYA (most hominids < 2 MYA); A. boisei, H. habilis, H. erectus
Nachakui Formation (WLT) 1980s; A. Walker; 2.5 MYA -- A. aethiopicus (WT 17000); 1.6. Homo erectus (WT 15000); Stone tools older than 2 MYA
West Lake Turkana 1999; Meave Leakey, Louise Leakey; 3.5 MYA – Kenyanthropus platyops; Contemporaneous with A. afarensis
Where was A. anamensis found? Kanapoi (West Lake Turkana) and Allia Bay (East Lake Turkana), Kenya, 4.2-3.9 MYA
Lake Turkana Paleoenvironment Eastern shore shifted often; Closed/wet habitats for “robust” forms?; Open, dry bushy habitats & closed wet habitats for early; Homo; Some brief period of rain forest expansion
Middle Awash Afar Depression badlands; Aramis, Behlodehlie, Maka, Konso, and Hadar; D. Johansen and T. White; Most early hominin material is A. afarensis; Ardipithecus ramidus material described in depth at last!
Hadar Formation 1970s, 90s; Lucy (A.L. 288-1)-3.2 MYA; 1st “family” (A.L. 333)-3.2 MYA; Great size disparity in sample; First skull of A. afarensis found in '94; 3.4-2.9 MYA brackets all hominids; Lake surrounded by marshland with later trans. to more open habitats
Konso 1991; A. boisei and H. erectus; Oldest firmly dated Acheulean tools; 1.4 MYA; Dry grassland
Bouri Region, Middle Awash 1999; T. White and colleagues; 2.5 MYA -- A. gahri; Tool use?
Laetoli, Tanzania 1974-1979; Mary Leakey; 3.76--3.46 MYA - A. afarensis type; 1978--3.6 MYA - trackway of hominid footprints; Semiarid with grassland savanna, scattered bushes, no waterbound fauna
Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1930s,50s–tools and hom'd. teeth; 1.7-1.8 MYA - “Zinj.” boisei and H. habilis (B1&2); 1.2 MYA– H. erectus (B2&4); Bed1 – semiarid with wooded areas, fossils found in swampy lake margins; Bed 2– faulting reduces lake size, plains-dwelling anmls arrive
Oldest Attributed Material Middle Awash (Ethiopia); 5.8 MYA, Ardipithecus kadabba; Aramis (Ethiopia); 4.4 MYA, Ardipithecus ramidus; Lothogam (SE Lake Turkana); 5.6 MYA, A. afarensis (or A. anamensis?)
Bipedalism evidenced where and how and by what time period? Kanapoi, Allia Bay (Kenya), Middle Awash (Ethiopia, Maka femur); By 4 MYA biped. had commenced; Supported by Laetoli footprints – 3.6 MYA; A. afarensis or A. anamensis; Aramis (Ethiopia– Ardipithecus ramidus)?; Tugen Hills (Kenya– Orrorin tugensis)?
When do “Robust” forms appear by? 2.5 MYA
Who are the “Robust” forms? A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, A. robustus
When and where was H. habilis contemporaneous with A. boisei? Omo, 2.4-1.4 MYA; Lake Turkana, 2.0-1.5 MYA; Olduvai Gorge, 1.8-1.2 MYA
What were most early hominin sites associated with? A water source
Early hominins widespread from Atlantic to East Africa, true or false? True
Which is the only site that seems to have been a closed woodland environment? Aramis
Where and when were Australopithecus anamensis deposits found? A. anamensis was found in deposits 4.2-3.9 mya at two sites in Kenya -- Kanapoi and Allia Bay.
What are some more primitive, ape-like features of the Australopithecus anamensis mandible? Parallel tooth rows and canines with very long and robust roots.
What are some of the features on the mandible that make A. anamensis a hominid? Thick dental enamel, bucco-lingual expansion of molars, and a degree of post-canine megadontia (big teeth) not seen in Ardipithecus.
Examine the postcranial fragments (drawings, photos, cast of distal humerus) and compare them with the human and chimpanzee material. Who does A. anamensis resemble more, a human or a chimpanzee? The tibia suggests that A. anamensis was bipedal due to the size and shape of proximal and distal articular surfaces which are more human-like than ape-like. The distal humerus has mosaic features.
From what deposits is Australopithecus afarensis mainly known? A. afarensis is known mainly from deposits 3-4 mya at Laetoli in Tanzania and at Hadar in Ethiopia, in addition to other sites.
What traits demonstrate that Australopithecus afarensis was bipedal? Pelvic and femoral traits demonstrate that this species was bipedal, but in a different way than seen in humans.
What kind of sexual dimorphism does Australopithecus afarensis display? There is little sexual dimorphism in terms of canine size, compared to great apes, but enormous sexual dimorphism in body size compared to modern humans.
What are some primitive or ape-like features of the Australopithecus afarensis dentition and mandible? Large dominant cusp on P3, large canine and incisors (not distinguishable on this cast), diastema, relatively parallel-sided tooth rows.
What are some of the Australopithecine features of the Australopithecus afarensis dentition? Post-canine megadontia, low molar cusps, and no honing complex for C/P3.
What are some primitive or ape-like features of the Australopithecus afarensis dentition, maxilla, and cranium? Compound temporonuchal crest (in larger individuals), pronounced subnasal prognathism.
What are some of the “gracile” Australopithecine features of Australopithecus afarensis? Large anterior dentition (especially central incisors) and weaker postorbital constriction compared to later “robust” forms.
How was the Taung child (Australopithecus africanus) dated? It is dated between 3.0 and 2.5 mya by faunal correlation. The limestone caves in which it was found are not amenable to absolute radiometric dating methods as with all the other sites in South Africa.
2. What are some features that led Raymond Dart to call the Taung child (Australopithecus africans) a hominid back in 1924? Rel. to apes, it has a long narrow skull, no browridges, circ. eye orbits, red. facial prognathism, sm. canines, no diastema, parabolic dental arch, forward position of the f. magnum. Brain is large rel. to apes, but with ape-like sulcal patterns.
How does the adult A. africanus from Sterkfontein (STS 5 or “Mrs. Ples” based on the original name that Robert Broom first gave it – Plesianthropus transvaalensis) compare to A. afarensis? A. africanus had more similar sized central and lateral incisors, larger cheek teeth, and no compound temporonuchal crest.
How else does the face differ between A. africanus and A. afarensis? It is less prognathic.
When and where did Australopithecus robustus live, compared to A. africanus? A. robustus lived 1-2 mya in drier, more open habitats (Swartkrans) than A. africanus. The two species are thought to be similar in body size, but differ in many cranio-dental features.
Name some dental differences between A. robustus and A. africanus A. robustus had Smaller incisors and canines and larger cheek teeth (premolars and molars) with thicker enamel.
Name some cranial differences between A. robustus and A. africanus A. robustus had Larger temporal fossa, anterior pillars, and sagittal crest, all of which relate to large chewing forces. Also, the face is placed high relative to the neurocranium, the forehead is flatter, and the face is flatter (less prognathic).
What do the cranio-dental differences indicate about diet in A. robustus versus A. africanus? A diet of tougher vegetation, such as seeds and nuts, which required more powerful chewing.
How was A. robustus dated? Faunal correlation as with virtually all other South African cave sites.
What size are the anterior teeth and cheeck teeth of Australopithecus boisei? small anterior teeth (incisors and canines) and large, flat cheek teeth (premolars and molars).
Are Australopithecus boisei canines integrated more into the incisor area or do they project as pointing, stabbing teeth as in other primates such as the Miocene apes and other living primates? The canines are integrated with the incisor area having undergone reduction in size to accommodate the expansion of the cheek teeth.
What function did the large, flat cheek teeth of Australopithecus boisei serve in terms of preparing food for digestion? Along with thick enamel, large flat cheek teeth in A. robustus offer crushing and grinding surfaces.
What do you suppose is responsible for overall size differences in the two Australopithecus boisei mandibles seen in lab? Sexual dimorphism. The smaller specimen may belong to a female and the larger to a male.
What is the age of the Australopithecus boisei specimen from the Koobi Fora Formation, East Lake Turkana in Kenya, compared to A. robustus? This East African robust australopithecine species dates back further in geological time than A. robustus from 1-2.4 mya.
Name some cranio-dental features that are more pronounced in A. boisei than in A. robustus, but along the same evolutionary trajectory. Accentuated sagittal and nuchal crests, enormous cheek teeth, extremely broad face with flaring zygomatic arches (cheek bones), a larger temporal fossa and consequently more post-orbital constriction. Absence of a forehead.
What was the first skull found of a robust australopithecine? Australopithecus boisei – disc. by Mary Leakey in 1959 at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania and named Zinjanthropus boisei. Later renamed to reflect a phylogenetic relationship to the S. African australopithecines and those later discovered in East Africa.
What are some of the cranio-dental traits that led to distinguishing Australopithecus boisei from gracile forms such as A. africanus? Smaller incisors and canines and huge cheek teeth, flat face, and heavily pneumatized cranial bones.
What is the oldest known “robust” australopithecine? The Australopithecus aethiopicus specimen (the “Black Skull”) is the oldest known found in deposits dating to 2.5 mya. The relatively small braincase and large attachment areas for the chewing muscles have produced a compound temporonuchal crests.
How does A. aethiopicus compare to other robust australopithecines? It is the most robust species in cranio-dental anatomy.
What are the similarities between A. aethiopicus and A. afarensis? Extensive pneumatization of temporal bone; large anterior tooth row; flat, shallow and prognathic palate; and a maxillary dental arch that converges posteriorly.
What are the implications of the mosaic anatomical arrangement of A. aethiopicus for reconstructing phylogeny? Hypotheses five and six accommodate the new information provided by KNM-WT 17000 but there is still no complete agreement regarding australopithecine phylogeny.
When is Australopithecus gahri dated to? A. gahri is a newly named species of australopithecine dated to 2.5. mya.
How does Australopithecus gahri compare to A. afarensis? It has a larger postcanine dentition than A. afarensis and also a large anterior dentition.
What does Australopithecus gahri lack compared to the robust australopithecenes? It lacks the derived craniodental features of the robust australopithecine lineage, such as heavy buttressing of the cranium.
How do the Australopithecus gahri limbs compare to A. afarensis? While the lower limb was lengthened (relative to A. afarensis), the upper limb was evidently still quite long, as in apes and A. afarensis.
What interpretation do the authors of the Science and Discovering Archaeology articles from lab 2 favor? A. gahri may have given rise to the Homo lineage with the robust australopithecine lineage developing simultaneously and separately.
Does the carrying angle of the A. afarensis femora resemble Pan or Homo more? Homo
What does the carrying angle of the A. afarensis femora imply regarding action at the knee joint and the type of locomotion employed by these early hominids? The carrying angle is high indicating bipedal locomotion.
What is the cranial capacity of Kenyanthropus platyops? it is similar to other australopithecines (400-500 cc).
What other species is contemporaneous with Kenyanthropus platyops in East Africa? Australopithecus afarensis
Where was Sahelanthropus tchadensis found, and what is its age range? far from the E. African rift system in the Djurab Desert of northern Chad in 2002. It is associated with fauna indicating an age of 6-7 MYA. The team of scientists that discovered this fossil consider it the earliest hominin.
What are some features that link Sahelanthropus tchadensis with hominins? Short, orthognathic face with slight subnasal prognathism, no diastema (i.e., no canine-honing complex).
What are some of the features of Sahelanthropus tchadensis that are more reminiscent of apes? Massive brow ridges, small endocranial capacity (320-380 cc), compound temporonuchal crest, molar enamel intermediate with chimps and australopiths.
What does the provenance of Sahelanthropus tchadensis (far from the East African rift system in the Djurab Desert of northern Chad in 2002) imply about the distribution of hominins (or pre-hominins in Africa?) They were more widespread than previously known. Perhaps the earliest phases of hominin evolution were not restricted to east Africa…
Describe features of a Macaque's auditory region. External auditory meatus forms an elongated bony tube. Also, there is no auditory bulla.
What is a Macaque's dental formula? Dental formula is 2 1 2 3. A premolar has been lost (P2)
Does a Macaque have an entepicondylar foramen? No
What are the proportions of a Macaque's humerus and femur like? humero-femoral proportions are subequal.
How do Baboon canines differ between the sexes in size, shape and function? The male has a greatly enlarged canine, honing arrangement, and diastema relative to the female. Canines are used in threat displays and aggressive behavior in living, and presumably, in fossil primates.
Are gorillas sexually dimorphic? If so, in what ways? Gorillas are extremely sexually dimorphic in body size, canine size, and other cranial features such as the sagittal and nuchal crests.
What is that thing on top of the male gorilla's head and what is it good for? It is a sagittal crest. This crest expands the area for the attachment of chewing muscles.
Does Aegyptopithecus zeuxis have a postorbital closure? Yes.
Did Aegyptopithecus have an external auditory meatus created by a tympanic ring (as in New World monkeys) or a bony tube (as in extant Old World anthropoids)? Aegyptopithecus had a tympanic ring.
Did Aegyptopithecus zeuxis have an entepicondylar foramen? What other group(s) also possess this anatomical arrangement? Yes. New World monkeys and prosimians.
Did Proconsul heseloni have a C/P3 honing complex? Yes
How many cusps did Proconsul heseloni have on P3 and P4? Two (bicuspid premolars)
Describe the upper and lower molars of Proconsul heseloni Upper molars are quadrate with a large hypocone (disto-lingual). Lower molars have five prism-like cusps with a large hypoconulid (distal).
What is the Proconsul heseloni's tympanic region like? Although not visible on this material, the tympanic region is tubular in Proconsul as in living catarrhines, but unlike some fossil catarrhines such as Aegyptopithecus.
Compare the madible of P. nyanzae to P. heseloni. Do you think they are separate species? Yes. P. nyanzae is larger than P. heseloni.
Is size a good way to discriminate between species? Only if it can be demonstrated that sexual dimorphism is not responsible for body size differences. Body size dimorphism in fossil species may not be the same in living species.
What other early Miocene ape weighed as much as Proconsul major (50 kilos)? Afropithecus turkanensis.
What living ape weighs about the same as Proconsul major (50 kilos)? A chimpanzee.
Does the relative width and length of the iliac blade of Proconsul nyanzae resemble Gorilla or Macaca? The relative width and length are more like a macaque. The iliac blade is narrow and long relative to Gorilla.
Does the ischial callosities of the Proconsul nyanzae fossil resemble Gorilla or Macaca? P. nyanzae resembles Gorilla and other living hominoids and differs from monkeys in lacking ischial tuberosities.
How do you think these size of the iliac blade and lack of ischial tuberosities in Proconsul nyanzae affected body shape, locomotion and posture? Proconsul had a narrow torso similar to monkeys and was more often quadrupedal.
How does the face of Afropithecus turkanensis compare to that of Proconsul? Relative to Proconsul, Afropithecus has small orbits, a wide inter-orbital region, and a long snout.
How does the face of Afropithecus turkanensis compare to that of Aegyptopithecus from Fayum deposits of Oligocene age? facial proportions are very similar in Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus (e.g. small frontal, long snout, etc.) suggesting that either these primitive features were retained since the Oligocene or that these two genera are part of the same phyletic lineage
Examine the crests on the molars of Dendropithecus macinnessi, [early Miocene ape (family Proconsulidae) from East Africa] What do you think they indicate about this animal’s diet? The crests indicate that this ape fed on leaves as well as fruit.
Compared the long, slender humerus of Limnopithecus to the macaque’s, a quadrupedual monkey. What do you think the form of this bone indicates about posture and locomotion in Limnopithecus? The long slender forelimb bones indicate this ape engaged in suspension as well as quadrupedalism. In fact, Limnopithecus was the most suspensory of the early Miocene hominoids.
Compare the skulls of Sivapithecus, Pongo, and Pan and examine the maxillary casts of Sivapithecus. Which living ape resembles Sivapthecus more? Pongo. Sivapithecus and Pongo are more closely related to each other than either one is to Proconsul or any other African ape. There is a firmly established phylogenetic relationship between this middle Miocene ape and Pongo.
What are some of the similarities between Sivapithecus, Pongo, and Pan? (e.g., in the anterior dentition, eye region, facial profile). deep and widely flaring zygomatic process; marked prognathism; short upper face; narrow interorbital distance;relatively large first incisor compared to the second incisor; overall shape of eye orbits and facial profile.
How does the Otavipithecus nimibiensis mandible and dentition differ from most other middle Miocene hominoids (e.g. Sivapithecus)? Otavipithecus has relatively gracile jaws, thin enamel, and minimal differential wear gradient from M1 to M3.
What type of diet did Otavipithecus nimibiensis ate? Non-abrasive, softer foods that did not require extensive preparation by large incisors prior to chewing. The incisors of Otavipithecus are small.
What was the largest primate that ever lived with body size estimates ranging from 150 to 300 kg? Gigantopithecus blacki
Did Gigantopithecus blacki have thickly enameled teeth? yes.
How does the mandible of Gigantopithecus blacki compare with that of Gorilla? It is relatively thicker and deeper. Their overall dental and mandibular anatomy indicates a diet of hard fibrous material.
Do you think Gigantopithecus blacki was arboreal or terrestrial? Given its size, it is highly likely that Gigantopithecus was terrestrial
Could Gigantopithecus blacki be Big Foot (aka the Saskwatch)? Maybe.
Created by: kevin23