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PHHS - APHUG: Important vocab for Unit 5 - Agriculture and Rural Land Use

activities that involve extracting something from the earth primary sector
activities that involve converting raw materials into intermediate or finished products secondary sector
activies that involve providing a service tertiary sector
activities that involve large exchanges of money or information quaternary sector
activities that involve higher education and research quinary sector
time period that started 2.5 million years ago; humans appeared during this age between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago Paleolithic Age
activities that sustained Paleolithic humans: hunting and gathering
took place between 10,000-12,000 years ago; humans first started to use domesticated plants and animals First Agricultural Revolution or Neolithic Revolution
the Neolithic Revolution allowed for food surplus, which allowed people to do other non-agricultural jobs. This division of labor is known as: specialization
continent where agriculture began Asia
first type of domesticated plants root crops
taming of animals so they can be used for human purposes domestication
selective breeding of animals done to pass along desirable traits animal husbandry
key event that allowed for diffusion of agricultural products between the Old and New worlds Columbian Exchange
farming to feed oneself and one's family subsistence agriculture
farmers who are semi-sedentary practice this type of agriculture; plant in one spot for a few years before moving on shifting cultivation
farming that requires lots of labor input and/or is done on a small piece of land intensive agriculture
planting a variety of different types of crops multi-cropping
farmers who engage in both multi-cropping and raising domesticated animals mixed farming or general farming
farming that requires little labor input and/or is done on a large piece of land extensive agriculture
extensive agriculture that focuses on one crop monoculture
two step process often used to quickly clear land; popular in stage 2 countries slash and burn
movement that improved agriculture, lasted from the late Middle Ages to the late 1800s Second Agricultural Revolution
movement that allowed the Second Agricultural Revolution to develop at a much quicker pace Industrial Revolution
model used to decribe spatial patterns of primary activities around European towns during the Second Agricultural Revolution Von Thunen Model
Farming that focuses on a small variety of crops grown on large tracts of land plantation agriculture
farming where crops are sold for profit non-subsistence agriculture
a particularly valuable crop grown on a plantation cash crop
crops that are expensive and therefore purchased only by the relatively wealth luxury crop
village located along one road linear village
village located around key road intersections cluster village
village set up in a circular structure round village
village with a protective barrier around it walled village
village with an organized road system that meets at 90 degree angles grid village
system of planting where crops are moved around to different fields year after year to prevent soil nutrient depletion crop rotation
growing two or even three rounds of crops on the same piece of land, one after another, in the same year double (or triple) cropping
the systematic detruction of forested areas deforestation
process by which salt levels in soil increase soil salinization
process by which land is transformed into a desert desertification
an agriculture concept involving engaging in activities at production levels that can be kept up long term sustainability
movement that took place between the 1940s and 1970s, introducing genetic engineering to the agriculture field Third Agricultural Revolution or Green Revolution
type of genetically engineered rice created in the 1960s IR8
genetically engineered corn that produces its own natural pesticide BT corn
hormone given to cows to make them grow bigger rBGH
aritifical pesticide that was outlawed in the U.S. in 1972 due to harmful effects in certain species DDT
agricultural products that are somehow different/rare/valuable or more desirable specialized agriculture products
food that has non been genetically altered Non-GMO
foods that have not been given compounds to prevent disease or grow artifically bigger antibiotic and hormone free
food products that are non-GMO, antibiotic and hormone free, and are free of any articifical fertilizers and pesticides organic
animals that are allowed to graze outside and eat a natural diet free-range and grass-fed
raising of seafood for human consumption aquaculture
variety of fruit or vegetable that is very old and relative uncommon, usually expensive heirloom variety
product linked to specific production region appellation
small plots of land that grow a variety of produce in or around an urban area market garden
small to medium size farms that grow a variety of fruits and vegetables truck farms
the number of calories the average person in a country eats per day caloric intake
the concept of getting all the key nutrients your body needs to stay healthy dietary balance
poor health due to poor caloric intake and/or dietary balance malnutrition
condition due to lack of protein kwashiorkor
condition due to lack of protein combined with low caloric intake marasmus
number of deaths of babies age 0-1 per 1000 live births infant mortality rate
number of deaths of children age 1-5 per 1000 people child mortality rate
average life span of a person in a given country life expectancy
Created by: pdeanna
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