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Hinduism Test

World Rel Test 1

How Do Humans Interact with the Sacred? Rituals Prayers Mythologies
Action and In-action Practices that show the divine in action Practices that allow you to quietly perceive the divine
The Question Matrix Organized by “Four Questions” Is there a God? What does it mean to be human? How do humans interact with the sacred? How does the sacred become community? Think “Vertically”
Edward Tylor on Religion Belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces; must be accepted on “faith”; nonempirical and inexplicable
Emilé Durkheim on Religion Bodies of people that band together regularly for worship; subscribe to and internalize a common system of meanings
Gertz on Religion (1) a system of symbols (2) which acts to establish powerful, pervasive and long-lasting moods and motivations in men (3) by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and (4) clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that (5) the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.
Ninian Smart’s sevenfold scheme of study Doctrinal Mythological Ethical Ritual Experiential Institutional *Material (added later)
Tylor’s heirarchical stages of religion Animism—belief in spiritual beings Polytheism Monotheism Science
Truth as Monologue Only one speaker Convinces the listener of the truth
Truth as a dialogue Multiple speakers, multiple viewpoints Listener can compare / contrast views
Hindu: Sanskrit word Sindhu The historic name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian Subcontinent Often called a religious tradition
Oldest continuous religion Hinduism 1500-500 BCE (Vedic Tradition) No single religion Umbrella term for multiple doctrines
Sanatana dharma means... "Eternal virtue" or "law"
Dharma is.. “Religion” “Universal Law” Dharma as “Regulation of Life through Universal Law” “Social Responsibilities” “Virtuous Path of Life” holds the universe together
Sruti Scripture of Hinduism
Smrti Hindu Oral Traditions (stories and actions)
Sruti texts Vedas Upanishads
Smrti texts Puranas Ramayana
Brahman: Source of All Divinity All gods / goddesses are aspects of this one true divine essence. A material and creative force, all time and space.
Brahma main hindu god, creation force
Vishnu main hindu god, protection and preservation divine couple with Lakshmi
Shiva main hindu god, destruction and transformation. Portrayed as a warrior, dancer, stylized penis / vagina (creative force)
Avatars of Vishnus Krishna Rama Buddha Kalki – The Avatar to Come
Parvati (hinduism) Shiva's wife. Ganesha (elephant god) Kartikeya (Murugan)
SHakti “Goddess”: the force within a male god’s power
Durga warrior force
Umma maternal force
Kali uncontrolled fury
Sacred places of Hinduism Ganges River Galta Temple – Hanuman Karni Mata – Yama Rats fed and protected White rats especially revered Shiva the rock
Castes and Subcastes (jati) Brahmins – Priests (Head) Ksatriyas – Royalty and Warriors (Arms) Vaisyas – Merchants and Farmers (Thighs) Sudras – Servants and Laborers (Legs) Dalits – “Untouchables” outside the system
Defined in the Rig-veda (Body of Purusha) The caste system
Goal of Hinduism to connect with Brahman Moksha – Liberation
Atman human true self / soul Comprised of Brahman
Maya Illusion that is the reality of the world
Samsara Cycle of death and rebirth Souls reincarnate until achieving moksha
Sanatana dharma Superior rebirths for virtuous living
The cause and effect of Hindu life dharma and karma
Bad karma must be “burned off” through lower rebirths
Moksha results in escape of samsara
Karma doesnt accumulate after moksha
without enough karma... enlightened beings become one with Brahman after death
the path of works Sacrifice, Purity, and Ritual
vedic sacrifice Earliest form of Hindu Practice Offerings to the gods bring harmony and order
sacrifice Food: ghee, cakes, and soma Animals: goats & horses (special significance) Humans: no longer acceptable
religious purity (Appropriate purity maintains balance and harmony) Bathe in sacred waters Temples Ganges, Indus Rivers
Puja rituals
Festivals – Communal celebration of sanatana dharma Public celebrations Pilgrimages
Bhakti the path of devotion Personal devotion to god(s), Common Practices: Sacrifices of food and clothing, Prayer and song, Meditation and mantras
Yogic Paths of Knowledge Seeks kaivalya – ultimate timelessness Recognition of atman
Kaivalya The experience of ultimate timelessness Pure Consciousness – union with Brahman
Yogic states of human consciousness Wakefulness Dreaming Dreamlessness Pure Consciousness
types of yogic awareness Purusha Prakriti
Life cycle expectations Birth Re-birth Beginning of religious and occupational study Marriage Often arranged – within same caste Renunciation Cremation
Ancient Vedic afterlife Differing realities based on caste, karma, and funeral ritual
Reincarnation is dependant on karma
Eternal timelessness as atman Unity with Brahman
Dependent on caste Guides actions and behaviors dharma
Result of previous life’s application of Dharma karma, determines rebirth
Created by: bwhite115



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