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USMLE Step 1

high yield facts from review books- mostly in Q & A form

cadmium toxicity leads to: honeycomb pneumonitis
cobalt toxicity causes: cardiomyopathy
chromium toxicity can cause: lung cancer
lead toxicity causes: disruption of heme synthesis and renal tubular acidosis
mercury poisoning can cause: neurotixicity and proximal tubule necrosis
arsenic toxicity can lead to: lung cancer
asbestos exposure can lead to: mesothelioma
aromatic amine exposure can cause: bladder cancer
benzene can cause: leukemia
vinyl chloride can cause liver angiosarcoma
Alpha-amanitin can lead to: fulminant hepatitis
what is the Ziehl Neelsen stain used for? Acid fast bacteria (turn red)
What is India ink used to diagnose? cryptococcus
What is the Geimsa stain used for? blood smears
What does PAS stain? glycogen, mucopolysaccharides
What does Prussian Blue stain for? Iron
What is the Congo Red stain used for? Amyloid (green birefringence)
what is osmic acid used for? Electro microscopy
what do gram + bacteria have in the outer layer of their cell wall? Teichoic acid
what do gram negative bacteria have in the outer layer of their cell wall? LPS (endotoxins)
what is speciall about the mycobacterium cell wall? It contains mycolic acid
What is special about mycoplasma structure? No cell wall and membrane contains cholesterol
what is the outside of a bacterial spore made of kipicolinic acid (keratin coat)
what cytokines are produced in response to gram negative infection (endotoxin effects)? TNF, IL-1
what is an exotoxin made of? polypeptides
what does tetanus toxin do? blocks glycine release
what does botulinim toxin do? blocks ACh release
what does diptheria toxin do? inhibts protein synthesis via ADP-ribosylation of EF-2
what baceteria produces alpha toxin? staph aureus
how does cholera toxin act? stimulates adenylate cyclase via Gs
how does pertussis toxin act? inhibits Gi, thereby stimulating adenylate cyclase
how does the heat labile E.coli toxin act? stimulates adenylate cyclase
how does the heat stable E.coli toxin act? stimulates guanylate cyclase
what 3 bugs are obligate aerobes? M. tuberculosis; pseudomonas aeruginosa; nocardia
which two bugs are microaerophilic? C. jejuni; Brucella abortus
Which bugs are obligate anaerobes? clostridium; actinomyces
most common cause of sinusitis? S. pneumoniae, S. aureus
most common cause of otitis media? S. pneumoniae; H. influenza
most common cause of bronchitis? H. influenza, S. pneumoniae
most common cause of pneumonia in infants? RSV
most common cause of pneumonia in young adults? mycoplasma
most common cause of pneumonia in elderly? S. pneumoniae
most common causes of neonatal meningitis? E. coli, Strep agalactia, Listeria
most common cause of childhood meningitis Neisseria meningitidis > S. pneumoniae
most common cause of adult meningitis? S. pneumoniae > N. meningitidis
what cause aseptic meningitis? enteroviruses, arboviruses in the summer
most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis? hep C
what bug causes carbuncles? Staph aureus
what are common sepsis causes in a catheterized patient? Candida, Staph A
What causes sepsis in burn wounds? Pseudomonas A
most common cause of childhood diarrhea? Rotavirus
most common cause of adult diarrhea (US)? C. jejuni
most common cause of diarrhea in travelers? E. coli, shigella, salmonella
is S. epidermidis novobiocin sensitive or resistant? sensitive
is S. saprophytics novobiocin sensitive or resistant? resistant
Group A strep pyogenes: bacitracin sensitive or insensitive? sensitive
Non group A strep: bacitracin sensitive or insensitive? insensitive
what type of hemolysys does pneumococcus demonstrate? alpha
Optichin sensitive: pneumococcus? yes
Optochin sensitive: S. viridans? no (resistant)
what age does meningococcus tend to infect? infants 6-24 months
what is a major complication of N. meningitidis infection? Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage)
What antibiotic is used of N. meningitidis? Penicillin G
What is a special gonococcus virulence factor? pili
what is the treatment for gonorrhea? Ceftriaxone (+ tetracycline for possible chlamydia coinfection)
adolescent with purulent arthritis: what should we suspect? gonorrhea
on what plate do we culture corynebacterium? Loeffler's telluride
what form do corynebacterium form in culture? chinese characters
what pH does lactobacillus like? <4.5
which 3 antibiotics are likely to cause pseudomembranous colitis? clindamycin, ampicillin, cephalosporins
E. coli: lactose fermenter? yup!
E. coli: motile? yes
what is the most common cause of UTI's? E. coli
Salmonella: motile? yup
Salmonella: latose fermenter? no
Which Salmonella produces gas? only S. typhi (--> enteric fever)
Shigella: motile? no
Shigella: lactose fermenter? no
which is more infective: salmonella or shigella? shig (x1000!)
typhoid treatment = chloramphenicol, ampicillin
Proteus: motile? yes
what does a proteus UTI lead to? ammonium calculi (due to urease production)
Klebsiella: motile? yes
what is the weil-felix reaction? proteus antigens cross-react with anti-rickettsial antibodies
K antigen = capsule
H antigen = flagella
most common cause of gram negative abdominal infections? bacteroides fragilis
Treatment for bacteroids fragilis? Metronidazole
Vibrio cholera treatment? tetracycline
what gastroenteritis is caused by sushi? virbrio parahaemolyticus
what is triple therapy for H. pylori? metro + tetracycline + bismuth
what cancer can H. pylori lead to? MALT lymphoma
how does Yersinia pestis stain? Bipolar (safety pin)
treatment for the plague? streptomycin, tetracycline
what is a common bug in dog and cat bites? pasteurella
treatment for pasteurella cellulitis or osteomyelitis? penicillin
what disease does brucella cause? undulating fever
treatment for brucella? tetracycline, gentamycin
what disease does francisella cause? tularemia
treatment for tularemia? streptomycin
what does H. influenza need for culture? chocolate agar
what is the treatment for whooping cough? erythromycin- best during catarrhal stage
how are pertussis toxin and cholera toxin alike? both upregulate adenylate cyclase
what causes "lump jaw" actinomyces
what might cause a leptospirosis infection? water contaminated with rat pee (sewers)
what cardiac problem can be caused by lyme disease? AV block
what is the infectious form of chlamydia? elementary body
what form of chlamydis is visible in the cytoplastmic inclusions seen on giemsa stain? reticulate body
all DNA viruses are double stranded except: parvovirus
all DNA viruses are icosahedral except: poxvirus
what's the largest virus there is? poxvirus
what does Parvovirus B19 cause? erythema infectiosum (5th disease)
what family does Papillomavirus belong to? papova virus
what family does JC virus beong to? papova
variola, vaccinia, and molluscum are all what kind of virus? poxvirus
HBV belongs to what family? Hepadna virus
where does HSV1 stay latent? trigeminal ganglion
Where does HSV2 rest while it's latent? sacral DRG
where do HSV1 and 2 multiply? fibroblasts
what can Epstein Barr Virus lead to? Burkitt's lymphoma (Africa), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (china)
what does HHV-6 cause? roseola (6th disease)
what does HHV-8 cause kaposi sarcoma
what's the big difference between smallpox/chickenpox presentation? chickenpox appear in different stages of evolution, smallpox are all at same stage
What viruses are picornaviruses? Rhino, Echo, HepA, Polio, Coxsackie
what family is rotavirus from? reo
what are the paramyxoviridae? rubeola, parainfluenza, mumps, RSV
Created by: terez



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