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Mid East History

Review Questions

There is no God but God & Muhammad is the prophet of God Allah, al-illah
Messenger Rasul
Prophet Nabi
Paternal Uncle of Muhammad(Raised Muhammad) Quaraishi Oligarch, wealthy trader. Abu Talib
Pre-Islamic term for individuals in Hijaz region who pursued experience and interaction with Gods of the region Hanif
Recognize many Gods, but accept one over all others henotheism
Arabian Peninsula including Mecca & Medina Hijaz
Trading City on caravan route/Market/Shrine of Ka’aba Mecca
(Medina) - Farming Community where new religion takes place Yathrib
(Large Groups)-Ethos of courage – An eye for an eye Bedouins
Early Bedouin society, (Polytheists) – Belief in multiple Gods Pagan
(Genie) – Good & Evil spirits disguised as Animals (Bedouin beliefs) Djinn
(Old Man) – Made deals with other tribes Shaykhs
(Ignorant) Views that defy and reject the guidance sent down by God through his Prophets. Jahilliyah
(Cube) Haram (sanctuary) forbidden of violence, located in Mecca, Ka’aba
Keepers of the Keys. Group that controlled the Ka’aba. Obtained great deal of power. Quraysh
Muhammads father-in-law(Father of Khadija) first political successor(Caliph) Abu Bakr
Son of Abu Talib, cousin of Muhammad, marries Fatima (Muhammads daughter) Ali
Theme of early teaching of Muhammad - The nature of God – Means the Compassionate Ar-Rachman
Move for Muhammad and 70 followers from Mecca to Yathrib(Medina) Hijra
Wife of Muhammad(@age 25)- Caravan Trader, wealthy/independent(Rare for women) Khadija
Daughter of Muhammad and Khadija, who marries Ali. Fatima
(Recitation) 114 Chapters(Sura) -Sorted longest to shortest – Revealed to Muhammad from God. Quran/iqra
(Profession of Faith) - Means "Witness" - First Pillar. There is no God but God, and Muhammad is a messenger of God. shahada
Means” helpers”- Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad on the arrival to the city after the migration to Medina Ansar
Mosque- Muslim place of worship masjid
Muslim community of believers(Congregation, members of a mosque/or all Muslims in the world Ummah
(Tithe) – Means "Charity",-3rd Pillar. alms=Giving(2-3% of ones wealth) zakat
Head covering worn in public my some Muslim women hijab
Collection of sayings & doings of Muhammad hadith
– practice of having more than one wife or husband at the same time polygamy
Spiritual struggle within oneself against sin jihad
Took over as Caliph after Abu Bakr’s death. Began administrative and religious regulations that enabled expansion of Islamic Empire Umar
3rd Caliph, took over after death of Umar. Quran was edited into its final form. Uthman
Son of Ali and Fatima. Cousin & son-in-law of Muhammad ‘Ali
First Caliph of the Umayyad Dynasty. Muawiyah
Capital of Umayyad Caliphate Damascus
Fought between Ali ibn, Abi Talib, and Muawiyah l, on banks of Euphrates river. The Battle of Siffin
Muslims who initially supported the caliphate Ali, but rallied to Caliph Muawiya. Kharijites
Refers to the first four Caliphs who established its Caliphate. Concept of “rightly Guided Caliphs”. Originated with ABBASID Dynasty. Rashidun
Second largest denomination of Islam. Shiites. Shi’atu Ali or Shi’ah
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs. Extended from Spain to Indea, overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate. The Umayyad Caliphate
– Means “Successor”- Chief Muslim civil and religious ruler. Caliph
Muslim religious scholars. Primary interpreters of Islamic Law. Ulama
What was the significance of the Kaba before Muhammad? -Meccan temple in which numerous pegan idols were housed.
Who were the Quraysh and how were they related to the Kaba -Keepers of the keys, controlled the Kaba
Means "Fasting" - 4th pillar. Refraining/Ramadan- Not eating anything for certain period of time Sawm
Pilgramage to Mecca. 5th Pillar.Last month of Islamic calandar. Receive forgiveness of all sings. Retracing last things Muhammad did on his way to Mecca before dying. Hajj
Prayer- 2nd Pillar. Pray 5 times per day(Dawn, Noon, Afternoon, Sunset, Night/Bedtime. Friday=Noon pray communal. Salat
Means "Sincerity"- Coming closer to God, doing things the way they are suppose to be done. Ihsan
Belief in only one God. Monotheism
Created by: braden.robertson
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