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APII Vessels


3 classes of blood vessels: ___, ___ and ___ arteries, capillaries, veins
___ carry blood away from the heart and become progressively smaller as they branch and finally result in ___. Arteries, capillaries
___ return blood to the heart and become progressively ___ as they merge and are closer towards it. Veins, larger
How many pathways do end arteries convey? one
Functional end arteries’ anastomosis is so tiny that they can be considered ___ ___. end arteries
___ vessels supply the same body region and lie next to each other. Companion
Both artery and vein walls have 3 layers called ___. tunics
The outer tunic is ___ ___. tunic externa
The tunica externa is connective tissue with ___ and ___ fibers. It helps anchor the blood vessel to an organ; larger blood vessels require their own ___ ___; smaller arteries that supply larger arteries are ___ ___, which run through the tunica externa. elastic, collagen, blood supply, vasa vasorum
The middle tunic is the ___ ___. tunica media
The inner tunic is the ___ ___. tunica intima
The tunic media is comprised of circularly arranged ___ muscle; sympathetic input causes this smooth muscle to ___ resulting in___; parasympathetic input results in ___. smooth, contract, vasoconstriction, vasodilation
The tunica intima (interna) is composed of ___ ___ ___, an endothelium, lining the inside of the arteries and veins, and a subendothelial layer of ___ ___ ___. simple squamous epithelium, areolar connective tissue
In an artery, the thickest layer is the ___ ___. The ___ and ___ fibers prevent them from collapsing. tunica media, elastic, collagen
In a vein, the thickest layer is the ___ ___. They tend to ___ if there is no blood in them. tunica externa, collapse
The only tunic that capillaries have is the ___ ___. It consists of basement membrane and endothelium only to allow rapid ___ ___. tunica intima, gas exchange
The dural venous sinus system consists of the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses, the ___ sinus, the left and right ___ sinuses, and the left and right ___ sinuses. straight, transverse, sigmoid
Most of the venous blood of the cranium drains though the ___ ___ ___. dural venous sinuses
The dural venous sinuses are formed between two layers of ___ ___. dura mater
There are no ___ in the dural venous system; blood flow is NOT unidirectional. valves
___ circulation consists of arteries and veins that travel to and from all parts of the body except the lungs. Systemic
Arteries transport blood away from the heart. The 3 types are: ___ arteries, ___ arteries and ___ elastin, muscular, arterioles
Arterioles command how much blood gets to tissue. They ___ and ___ and ___. vasoconstrict, vasodilate, afterload
The internal carotid arteries enter the cranium through the ___ ___. carotid canal
The internal carotid arteries divide into ___ and ___ ___ arteries which supply the brain, and the ___ arteries that supply the eyes. anterior, middle cerebral, opthamalic
Elastic arteries are also called ___ arteries. conducting
Elastic arteries are the ___ of the arteries. largest
Most examples of elastic arteries are near the ___. heart
The ___ ___ in all three tunics allow elastic arteries to stretch under increased pressure generated by the heart’s bloodflow. elastic fibers
Elastic arteries branch into ___ arteries. muscular
___ are the smallest arteries. Arterioles
Arterioles have <6 cell layers of smooth muscle in their ___ ___. tunica media
Larger arterioles have ___ tunics, smaller ones have ___ and one layer of muscle. three, endothelium
Sympathetic innervation to the muscle fiber cells of the tunica media causes ___ resulting in elevation of blood pressure. vasoconstriction
Parasympathetic innervation causes ___ and a lowering of blood pressure. vasodilation
Left and right common carotid arteries supply most of the blood to the ___ and ___. head, neck
At the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, the ___ ___ arteries divide into internal and external carotid arteries. common carotid
The ___ ___ ___ returns blood to the right atrium from the lower limbs, pelvis and perineum, and abdominal structures. inferior vena cava
The ___ ___ ___ is formed from a fusion of the right and left brachiocephalic veins and drains into the right atrium. superior vena cava
Veins are larger than ___. venules
Smaller and medium-sized veins travel with ___ ___. muscular arteries
Large veins travel with ___ ___. elastic arteries
Blood pressure in veins is too low to overcome the forces of gravity; they possess ___ valves
Valves are formed from the tunica ___ and prevent blood from pooling in the limbs. intima
As skeletal muscles contract, they also pump blood toward the heart. This process is called the ___ ___ ___. skeletal muscle pump
Veins are blood vessels that drain ____ and return blood to the heart. capillaries
Pressure in veins is much higher or lower than in arteries? lower
At rest, the body’s veins hold about ____% of the body’s blood. Thus, veins function as blood ____. 60, reservoirs
____ are the smallest veins. Venules
Venules are companion vessels with ____. arterioles
The smallest venules are located at the distal end of a capillary bed and are called ____ ____. postcapillary venules
Diapedesis (the migration of leukocytes from the bloodstream to the body) occurs through the walls of the ____ ____. postcapillary venules
Venules merge to form ____. veins
The facial, superficial temporal and maxillary veins ____. merge
Venous blood return is through the internal jugular vein or the ____ ____ vein. external jugular
The internal jugular and the external jugular veins drain into the ____ vein and then into the ____ vein. subclavian, brachiocephalic
Branches from the metarteriole that begin with a ring of smooth muscle on their walls are called ___ ___. true capillaries
The ____ ____ control blood flow into true capillaries. They open when the tissue needs nutrients and closes when needs have been met. They undergo ____. precapillary sphincters, vasomotion
Vertebral arteries branch from the ____ ____ and travel through the transverse foramina of the ____ vertebrae. subclavian arteries, cervical
The vertebral arteries enter the cranium through the foramen magnum where they merge to form the ____ artery. basilar
The basilar artery and the internal carotid arteries give off several branches that create an anastomosis of arteries just superior to the sella turcica called the ____ ____ ____ also known as the ____ ____ ____. cerebral arterial circle, circle of Willis
Systolic pressure is the pressure in the vessel during ____ ____. It is greater than diastolic pressure due to greater pressure during ____. ventricular systole, contraction
Diastolic pressure is pressure during ____ ____. Pressure is highest in the arteries nearest to the ____. ventricular diastole, heart
The aortic arch gives off three branches: the ____ ____, (which bifurcates into right common carotid and right subclavian arteries) the left ____ ____ artery, and the left ____ artery. brachiocephalic trunk, common carotid, subclavian
The superior thyroid artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the ____ gland, ____ and ____ muscles. thyroid, larynx, neck
The ascending pharyngeal artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the ____. pharynx
The lingual artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the ____. tongue
The facial artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the ____. face
The ____ artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the posterior portion of the scalp. occipital
The ____ ____ artery is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies the ear and scalp around it. posterior auricular
The external carotid artery divides into the maxillary artery and ____ ____ artery. superficial temporal
The ____ ____ aorta follows the aortic arch and gives off several branches to the thoracic wall. descending thoracic
The descending thoracic aorta is renamed ____ ____ aorta when it passes inferior and posterior to the diaphragm. descending abdominal
At the fourth lumbar vertebra, the descending abdominal aorta bifurcates into left and right ____ ____ arteries. common iliac
Common iliac veins further divide into internal and external ____ ____. iliac veins
Which arteries, large or small, tend to exhibit high pressure and that gradually decreases? large
Blood pressure is the force per unit area that blood gives the wall measured in ____. mmHg
____ ____ artery arises from subclavian artery and supplies the mammary gland and anterior thoracic wall internal thoracic
Internal thoracic artery becomes ____ ____ arteries and continues on to become ____ ____ artery which supplies blood to superior abdominal wall anterior intercostal, superior epigastric
____ ____ artery is a branch of the external iliac artery and supplies the inferior abdominal wall and forms anastamosis with the superior epigastric artery inferior epigastric
____ and ____ ____ on the left side of the vertebrae drain left side veins hemiazygos, accessory hemiazygos
____ vein drains blood from the right side veins and receives blood from the hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins. azygos
blood from the azygos vein drains into the ____ ____ ____ superior vena cava
the lungs are supplied by several ____ arteries that branch from the ____ ____ _____. bronchial, descending thoracic aorta.
the esophagus is supplied by ____ arteries that branch from ____ ____ ____. esophageal, descending thoracic aorta
what are the three sources and where do they branch from that supply the diaphragm? superior phrenic artery - descending thoracic aorta musculophrenic artery - internal thoracic arteries inferior phrenic artery- descending abdominal aorta
what nerve tells you to breathe? phrenic nerve
what are the three main branches of the aortic arch and which major body part is supplied by each branch? brachiocephalic trunk which bifurcates into right common carotid and supplies the r side of the head and neck right subclavian artery- r upper limb and some thoracic structure left common carotid artery-the left upper limb and some thoracic structure
which arteries supply the brain? the ____ ____ and ____ arteries common carotid, vertebral
how many unpaired arteries emerge from the anterior wall of the descending abdominal aorta three
what three arteries supply the organs of the gi tract? celiac trunk - stomach pancreas liver and spleen superior mesenteric artery - small intestine inferior mesenteric artery - large intestine, colon, rectum and anus
what are the three branches of celiac trunk? left gastric artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery
left ____ artery supplies lesser curvature of stomach and lower esophogus gastric
____ artery supplies the spleen and part of stomach splenic
____ _____ artery supplies the liver, gall bladder and portion of the stomach common hepatic
what are the five branches of the superior mesenteric artery and what do they supply? 1. inferior pancreaticduodenal artery - pancreas and duodenum 2. intestinal artery(18-20) jejunum and ileum 3. ileocolic artery ileum cecum appendix 4. right colic artery ascending colon 5. middle colic artery transverse colon
what are the three branches of the inferior mesenteric artery and what do they supply? 1. left colic artery- distal transverse colon and proximal descending colon 2. sigmoid artery- distal descending and sigmoid colon 3. superior rectal artery - rectum and upper half of anal canal
veins that drain blood from the gi organs and shunt blood to the liver: ____ ____ system hepatic portal
delivers nutrient rich blood to liver and is formed by fusion of three veins: ____ ____ vein hepatic portal
what are the three veins that merge to form the hepatic portal vein and what do they drain? 1. inferior mesenteric vein - distal part of colon 2. splenic vein - spleen, pancreas and stomach 3. superior mesenteric vein- small intestines, proximal part of colon, pancreas and sotmach
____ veins collect blood from the liver and return it to inferior vena cava hepatic
what are the three paired arteries from the descending abdominal aorta and what do they supply? 1. middle suprarenal artery- adrenal gland 2. renal artery - kidney 3. gonadal artery (testicular or ovarian artery) - gonads
____ ____ artery is the primary arterial supply to the pelvis and perineum internal iliac
5 branches of the internal iliac artery and what they supply. 1. superior/inferior gluteal artery - glutes 2. obturator artery - medial thigh 3. internal pudenal artery - anal canal and perineum 4. middle rectal artery - lower rectum 5. uterine/vaginal artery - uterus and vagina
what three branches arise from the celiac trunk? _____ artery, ____ artery and ____ ____ artery gastric, splenic, common hepatic
The hepatic portal system is network of veins that drain blood from gi system and shunts it the liver. Its main function is to drain ____ from liver. nutrients
what are the veins that drain into the hepatic portal system? inferior ____ vein, ____ vein and ____ ____ vein mesenteric, splenic, superior mesenteric
left and right ____ arteries supply blood to the upper limbs subclavian
as the subclavian artery passes over the lateral border of the first rib it becomes ____ artery axillary
____ artery supplies the shoulder and thoracic region axillary
as the axillary artery passes over the inferior border of the teres major it becomes ____ artery. brachial
in the cubital fossa the brachial artery bifurcates into ____ and ____ arteries radial, ulnar
radial and ulnar arteries of the forearm anastamose and form superficial and deep ____ ____ in palm of hand palmer arches
____ arteries emerge from arches and supply fingers digital
If the left ulnar artery were cut blood would be able to reach the left hand and fingers by way of ____ with the ____ artery. anastamosis, radial
on the dorsum of the hand ____ ____ network drains into the ____ and ____ veins dorsal venous, basilic, cephalic
in the cubital fossa the basilic and cephalic veins are connected by ____ ____ vein and it is the most common vein used for venipuncture median cubital
the digital veins and superficial and deep ____ ____ ____ drain into pairs of ____ and ____ veins in forearm palmer venous arches, radial, ulnar
at the cubital fossa the radial and ulnar veins merge to form a pair of ____ veins brachial
brachial veins merge with the basilic vein to form the ____ vein axillary
when the axillary vein crosses superior to the lateral border of the first rib it becomes the ____ vein subclavian
the left and right ____ ____ arteries supply the lower limb external iliac
as the external iliac passes inferior to the inguinal ligament it becomes the ____ artery and gives off a branch called deep ____ artery femoral, femoral
____ ____ artery supplies the hip joint via medial and lateral circumflex arteries deep femoral
the femoral artery enters the posterior popliteal fossa and becomes the ____ artery which supplies the knee joint and muscles popliteal
popliteal artery divides into anterior and posterior ____ arteries that supply the anterior and posterior compartment of the leg tibial
the posterior tibial artery gives off a branch called _____ artery and supplies the lateral compartment of leg fibular
the posterior tibial artery divides into medial and lateral ____ arteries in the foot plantar
the anterior tibial artery changes to ____ ____ artery at the anterior surface of the ankle dorsalis pedis
the dorsalis pedis artery and lateral plantar artery unite to form ____ ____ plantar arch
____ arteries extend from plantar arch to supply toes digital
on the dorsum of the foot a ____ ____ arch drains into the ____ ____ vein medially and ____ ____ vein laterally dorsal venous, great saphenous, small saphenous
The great saphenous vein drains into _____ vein and the small saphenous vein drains into ____ vein. femoral, popliteal
deep and digital veins of the foot drain into pairs of ____ and ____ plantar veins medial, lateral
medial and lateral plantar veins drain into a pair of ____ ____ veins posterior tibial
on the dorsum of foot and ankle deep veins drain into a pair of ____ ____ veins anterior tibial
the anterior and posterior tibial veins merge to form the ____ vein in the popliteal fossa popliteal
the poplitel vein curves onto the anterior thigh and becomes the ____ vein femoral
once the femoral vein passes superior to the inguinal ligament it becomes ____ ____ vein external iliac
when the external iliac vein merges with the internal iliac vein it becomes the ____ ____ vein common iliac
the left and right common iliac vein merge to form the ____ ____ ____ inferior vena cava
what are the superficial veins that drain the upper limb? ____ and cephalic vein basilic
____ circulation is responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood from right side of heart to lungs and returning oxygenated blood to left side of heart pulmonary
Which circulation, pulmonary or systemic, has arteries that carry deoxygenated blood and veins that carry oxygenated blood? pulmonary
deoxygenated blood exits the right ventricle into the ____ ____ which bifurcates into right and left _____ arteries that go to the lungs pulmonary trunk, pulmonary
pulmonary arteries branch into arterioles to capillaries and return to left atrium as ____ veins. pulmonary
compare the bronchial arteries and veins with the pulmonary arteries and veins - arteries provide blood supply and veins take ____ ____ for ____ ____ deoxygenated blood, gas exchange
oxygenated blood leaves the ____ ____ of the heart and travels through the aorta left ventricle
how many veins and arteries are in umbilical cord 1 vein 2 arteries
Gas and nutrient exchange occurs in the ____ during fetal circulation. placenta
There are three types of capillaries: ____, ____ and ____ continuous, fenestrated, sinusoid
Continuous capillaries, the most common, are made up of endothelial cells from a continuous and complete lining (no physical holes) aided by the presence of tight junctions. Materials pass through by ____ ____ or ____. simple diffusion, pinocytosis
Continuous capillaries are found in ____, skin, ____, ____ and CNS. muscle, thymus, lungs
Fenestrated capillaries are made up of endothelial cells that possess small “holes” to allow fluid exchange between blood and ____ ____. Their basement membrane is ____. interstitial fluid, continuous
Fenestrated capillaries are found in the ____ ____ of the eye, ____ glands (for hormone transport) and ____ (to filter ALL blood). ciliary process, endocrine, kidneys
____ capillaries have big gaps between endothelial cells that promote transportation of large molecules and cells to and from the blood. Their basement membrane is discontinuous or absent. Sinusoid
Sinusoid capillaries are found in bone marrow, ____ pituitary, ____ gland, ____ glands, ____ and liver. anterior, parathyroid, adrenal, spleen
Capillaries form capillary beds. These beds ____ surface area to ____ blood flow allowing more time for exchange. increase, slow
Each capillary bed is fed by a ____ whose proximal end is surrounded by smooth muscles. The distal end, called the ____ ____, lacks smooth muscles. metarteriole, thoroughfare channel
thoroughfare channel connects to a ____ ____ postcapillary venule
smallest of all blood vessels capillaries
The diameter of capillaries is only slightly larger than a/an ____. erythrocyte
The capillary wall consists solely of the tunica ____ (a single layer of endothelial cells for gas exchange). intima
____ are the only type of blood vessel where metabolic exchange can occur between blood and cells outside of the bloodstream. Capillaries
Oxygenated blood is pumped out of left ventricle into ascending aorta; the ascending aorta gives off two branches: the left and right ____ artery coronary
Muscular arteries have a proportionately thicker tunica ____. They possess less distensibility and the better ability to ____ or ____. media, vasoconstrict, vasodilate
____ arteries are medium diameter arteries and are called distributing arteries. Muscular
____ arteries possess elastic fibers in two concentric rings between the three tunics: the internal ____ ____, which separates the tunica intima and tunica media AND the ____ ____ ____, which separates the tunica media and the tunica externa. Muscular, elastic lamina, external elastic lamina
Created by: BrandiLynn