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APII Heart


A healthy 80-kilogram resting adult's heart beats ____ times per min. 75
The amount of blood pumped from one ventricle per min is called ____ ____. cardiac output
When the body is more active and needs more nutrients the heart can increase its output by ____ to ____ fold. 5-6
Two basic types of blood vessels are ____ and ____. arteries, veins
____ carry blood AWAY from the heart. Arteries
____ carry blood TO the heart. Veins
The arteries and veins entering and leaving the heart are called the ____ ____. great vessels
The heart’s anatomy ensures the ____ flow of blood through it. unidirectional
Backflow of blood is prevented by ____. valves
The heart acts like two side-by-side pumps that work at the same ____ and pump the same ____ of blood. rate, volume
The heart develops ____ ____ through alternate cycles of heart wall contraction and relaxation. blood pressure
Pulmonary circulation consists of the chambers on the ____ side of the heart. right
Cardiac output = ____ *____ stroke volume multiplied by heart rate
Systemic circulation consists of the chambers on the ____ side of the heart. left
Most veins merge and drain into the superior and inferior ____ ____ which drains blood into the ____ atrium. venae cavae, right
The heart is located ____ of the body midline, posterior to the ____ and in the ____. left, sternum, mediastinum
The heart is slightly rotated so the ____ border is more anterior and the ____ border is more posterior. right, left
The posterosuperior surface of the heart is called the ____. base
The ____ ____ is formed by the great arterial trunks and the superior vena cava. superior border
The heart's conical end is called the ____. apex
The inferior border is formed by the ____ ____. right ventricle
The heart is contained within the ____, a fibrous sac and serous lining. pericardium
2 functions of the pericardium: ____ heart movement and prevents it from ____ with blood restricts, overfilling
The outer portion of the pericardium is a tough, dense connective tissue layer called ____ _____. fibrous pericardium
The inner layer of pericardium is a thin, double-layered serous membrane called ____ ____. serous pericardium
The serous pericardium is divided into two layers _____ layer and ____ layer. parietal, visceral
The ____ layer of serous pericardium lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium. parietal
The ____ layer of serous pericardium covers the outside of the heart. visceral
The thin space between the parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardium is the ____ ____. pericardial cavity
The pericardial cavity is a ____ space with just a thin lining of serous fluid. potential
In an average normal adult the heart weighs ____ to ____ grams. 250-350
The ____ is the outermost heart layer and is AKA visceral layer. epicardium
The ____ is the middle layer of the heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue. myocardium
The myocardium is where ____ ____ (heart attacks) occur. myocardial infarctions
The internal surface of the heart and the external surface of the valves are covered by _____. endocardium
The endocardium is composed of a simple squamous endocardium called _____ and a layer of areolar connective tissue. endothelium
The left and right ____ are thin-walled chambers located superiorly in the heart. atria
The anterior part of each atrium is a wrinkled flap like extension called an _____. auricle
The right atrium receives blood from the ____ circulation and the left atrium receives blood from the ____ circulation. systemic, pulmonary
The left and right ____ are the inferior chambers in the heart. ventricles
Two large arteries, the ____ trunk and the ____ exit the heart at its superior border. pulmonary, aorta
The pulmonary trunk carries blood from the ____ ____ into the pulmonary circulation. right ventricle
The aorta conducts blood from the left ventricle in the ____ circulation. systemic
The atria are separated from the ventricles externally by a deep _____ _____. coronary sulcus
The anterior/posterior inter-ventricular sulci are located between the left and right _____. ventricles
All sulci house blood vessels packed in ____ tissue. adipose
The heart possesses four chambers: Right atrium, Right ventricle, Left atrium, Left ventricle
The heart possesses four valves: Right atrioventricular (tricuspid), Pulmonary semilunar, Left atrioventricular (bicuspid or mitral), Aortic semilunar
In a normal 80 kg resting adult blood pumped from one ventricle per min ____ L (cardiac output). 5.25
The ____ _____ of the heart is located between the atria and the ventricles, is formed from dense regular connective tissue. fibrous skeleton
____ ____ separates the atria and the ventricles. fibrous skeleton
The ____ ____ anchors heart valves by forming supportive rings at their attachment points. fibrous skeleton
Fibrous skeleton provides ____ ____ between atria and ventricles that ensure muscle impulses are not spread throughout the heart. electrical insulation
____ ____ provides a rigid framework for the attachment of cardiac muscle tissue. fibrous skeleton
The right ____ receives venous blood from the systemic circulation and the heart muscle itself. atrium
Three major vessels empty blood into the right atrium ____ ____ ____, inferior vena cava, ____ ____. superior vena cava, coronary sinus
The ____ ____ ____ drains blood from the head, neck, upper limbs, and superior regions of the trunk n to the right atrium. superior vena cava
The ____ ____ ____ drains blood from the lower limbs and trunk into the right atrium. inferior vena cava
The ____ ____ drains blood from the heart wall into the right atrium. coronary sinus
The ___ ___ forms a thin wall between the right and left atria. interatrial septum
The auricle and the anterior atrial wall exhibit muscular ridges called ____ muscles. pectinate
The interatrial septum has an oval depression called ____ ____. fossa ovalis
The fossa ovalis is formally known as the fetal ____ ovale. foramen
Separating the right atrium from the right ventricle is the right ____ opening. atrioventricular
The right AV opening is covered by a right ____ valve (tricuspid). atrioventricular
The right AV valve is forced closed when the RV begins to contract preventing ____. backflow
The right ventricle receives ____ venous blood from the RA. deoxygenated
An ____ ____ forms a thick wall between the right and left ventricles. interventricular septum
The internal wall of each ventricle has large, smooth, irregular muscular ridges called ____ ____. trabeculae carneae
The right ventricle typically has three cone-shaped, muscular projections called ____ muscles. papillary
Papillary muscles in the ventricles anchor numerous strands of collagen fibers called ____ ____. chordae tendineae
The ____ ____ attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve and prevent the valve from everting and flipping into the atrium. chordae tendineae
A muscle bundle called ____ ____ connects the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the interventricular septum. septomarginal trabecular
At the superior end the RV narrows into a smooth-walled conical region called ____ ____. conus arteriosus
Beyond the conus arteriosus is the ____ ____ valve that marks the end of the RV and the entrance into the pulmonary trunk. pulmonary semilunar
The ____ ____ divides into right and left pulmonary arteries which carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs. pulmonary trunk
Semilunar valves are located within the walls of both ventricles; each valve is composed of three thin, half-moon shaped, and pocket like semilunar _____. cusps
Oxygenated blood travels through the pulmonary veins to the ____ ____. left atrium
Separating the left ventricle and the left atrium in the left ____ opening, the opening is covered by ____ ____- valve (bicuspid/mitral). atrioventricular, left atrioventricular (AV)
At the superior end of the ventricular cavity, the ____ ____ ____ marks the end of the left ventricle and the entrance into the aorta. aortic semilunar valve
Left and right ____ ____ travel within the coronary sulcus of the heart to supply the heart wall. coronary arteries
The left and right coronary arteries are the only branches of the ascending ____. aorta
The right coronary artery typically branches into the right ____ artery and the posterior ____ artery. marginal, interventricular
The right marginal artery supplies the ____ ____ of the heart. right border
The posterior interventricular artery supplies ____ surface of both the left and right ventricles. posterior
The left coronary artery branches into ____ ____ artery and the _____ artery. anterior interventricular, circumflex
The anterior interventricular artery supplies the ____ surface of both ventricles and most of the interventricular septum. anterior
The circumflex artery supplies the left ____ and ____. atrium, ventricle
Coronary arteries are considered ___ ___ arteries despite the fact that they have anastomoses. functional end
___ let the arteries share a tiny amount of blood. This is not enough blood to share when one of them is blocked. Anastomoses
The great ____ ____ runs alongside the anterior interventricular artery. cardiac vein
The ____ ____ vein runs alongside the posterior interventricular artery. middle cardiac
The ____ ____ vein travels close to the right marginal artery. small cardiac
The great, middle, and small cardiac veins all drain into the ____ ____, a large vein that lies in the posterior aspect of the coronary sulcus. coronary sinus
The coronary sinus drains directly into the ____ ____ of the heart. right atrium
Because the ventricular myocardium is compressed during contraction most of coronary flow occurs during ventricular _____. relaxation
An inadequate coronary blood flow called ____ is an increased heart rate that shortens diastole. tachycardia
Inadequate coronary blood flow called ____ is the reduced ability of blood flow through the ventricular myocardium. hypotension
Deoxygenated blood is carried in the _____ circuit. pulmonary
____ is a visceral layer of serous pericardium surrounding the outer walls of the heart Epicardium
What is the function of serous fluid? lubrication
The coronary sulcus separate the ____ and the ____ externally atria, ventricles
Closure of right atrioventricular valve is caused by the ____ of the right ventricle. contraction
The _____ _____ attach to the lower surface of cusps of the right AV valve and prevent the valve from everting and flipping into the atrium when the RV is contracting. chordae tendineae
Created by: BrandiLynn
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