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Unit 4-5

Politics and Economics

Grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources. Agglomeration
Economic activities that surround and supports large-scale industries such as shipping and food service Ancillary
A boundary line established befaore an area is populated Antecedent boundaries
Human-centered;in sustainable development, anthropocentric refers to ides that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the creaures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystem upon which we depend Anthropocentric
The negative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region Back wash affect
condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries Balance of power
the contentious political process by which a state may break up into smaller countries Balkanization
A location where large shipments of goods are broken up into smaller containers for delivery to local markets Break-bulk point
Traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or reatil occurs; it does not exist solely on the internent Brick-and-mortar business
Invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory Boundary
A relatively small country sandwiched between two larger powers. the existence of buffer states may help to prevent dangerous conflicts between powerful countries. Buffer state
Industries whose products weigh more after assembly than they did previously in their constituent parts. Such industries tend to have production facilities close to their markets Bulk-gaining industries
Industries whose final products weigh less than their constituent parts and whose processing facilities tend to be located close to sources of raw materials Bulk-reducing industries
Forces that tend to unite or bind a country together Centripetal forces
Forces that tend to divide a country Centrifugal forces
A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinderland City-state
The expansion and perpetuation of an empire Colonialism
A territory that is legslly tied to a sovereign state reather than completely independent Colony
Confederacy of Indepedent states of the former Soviet union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs Commonwealth of Independent states
A state that possesses a roughly circular, oval or rectangular territory in which the distance from the geometric center is relatively equal in all directions Compact state
A form of an international oranization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose Confederation
A firm that is comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions Conglomerated corporation
National or Global regions where economic power, in terms of wealth innovations and advance technology is concentrated Core
A model of the spatial structure of development in which underdeveloped countries are defined by their dependence on a developed core region Core-periphery model
An industry in which the production of goods and services is based in homes as opposed to factories Cottage industry
The dispersal of an industry that formerly existed in an established agglomeration Deglomeration
Loss of industrial activity in a region Deindustrialization
The process of economic growth expansion or realization of regional resource potential Development
the idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse Domino theory
Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free-market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia East/West divide
Web based economic activities E-commerces
Regions that fail to gain from national economic development Economic backwaters
A form of tourism based on the enjoyment of scenic areas or natural wonders, that aims to provide on experince of nature or culture in an enviromentally sustainable way Ecotourism
A number of electors from each state proportional to and representative of that state's population.Each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice.The candidate who receives a higher portion of electoral votes Electoral college
The decision of a particular state's electoral votes within a states recieves all the electoral votes for that state Electoral vote
A state whose territory is long and narrow in shape Elongated state
Any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region Encalves
International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members European Union
A bounded territory that is part of a state but is separted from it by a territory of a different stae Exclave
Areas where goverments create favorable investment and trading conditions to attract export-oriented industries Export-processing zones
Areas of the world, usually the economic core that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies Fast world
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local goverments Federal state
A system of goverment in which power is distributed among certian geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central goverment Federalism
Manufacturing activites in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished products is not important for determining the location of the firm Footloose firms
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford Fordism
Overseas business investments made by private companies Forgein investment
A state that is not a contiguous whole but rather separated parts Fragmented state
An area where borders are shifting and weak and where people of different cultures of nationalities meet and lay claim to the land Frontier
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM)
A measure of the opportunities given to women when compared to men within a given country Gender equity
Compares the level of development of women within that of both sexes Gender-related Development Index (GDI)
Political boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines Geometric boundary
The study of the interplay between political relations and the territories context in which they occur Geopolitics
The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete Globalization
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular political party or canidate Gerrymandering
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period, usually one year Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually a year Gross National Product
Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominated the world Heartland theory
Measure used by the United Nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. The HDI eveluates human welfare based on three parameters: Life expactancy, education and income Human Development Index
The perpetuation of a colonial empire even offer it is no longer politically sovereign Imperialism
The rapid economic and social changes in manufacturing that resulted after the introduction of the factory system to the textile industry in England at the end of the 18th century Industrial revolution
Process of industrial development in countries economically,from producing basic,primary goods to modern factories for mass producing goods.At highest levels of development national economics are geared toward the delivery of services, exchange of info Industrialization
Brit,Franc,US,Rusia,Germany,Japan,etc led industrial production n innovation through the mid of 20century.industry is now movin to other countries for cheap labor,relaxed enviromental standards, countries are large portion of worlds industrial output Industrialized Countries
An alliance of two or more countries seeking cooperation with each other without givingup either's autonomy of self determination International organization
A state that is completely surrounded by the land of the other states,which gives it a disadvantage in terms of accessiblity to and from international trade routes Landlocked state
Law establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources Law of the Sea
A concept development by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transport and labor and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration Least-cost theory
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to aquire "living space" for the german people. Lebensroun
Also known as a developing country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development Less Developed Country
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write Literacy rate
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together. the major US industrial region has historically been in the GreatLakes,states:Michigan,illinois,indiana,ohio,NY,penn.industrial regions also in SE Brazil,central England,around Tokyo Manufacturing region
US firms that have factories just outside the US/Mex. border areas that have been specially designated by the Mex. gov. in such areas factories cheaply assemble goods for export back into the US Maquiladoras
A state or territory that is smaller in both pop. and area Microstate
Also known as a relatively developed country or a developed country, a country that has prgressed relatively far along a continuum of development More Development Country
Tightly knit group of individuals sharing a common language,ethnicity,religion and other cultural attributes Nation
A sense of national pride to such an extent of exalting one nation above all others Nationalism
A country whose population possesses a subtanial degree of cultural homogeniety and unity Nation state
A measure of all goods and services produced by a country in a year,including production from its investments abroad,minus the loss or degradation of natural resources capital as a result of productivity Net National Product
Natural resources, such as fossil fuels, that do not replenish themselves in a timeframe that is relevant for human consumption Nonrenewable resources
Agreement signed on Jan. 1,1994, that allows the opening of borders between the US,Mex and Canada. North American Free Trade Agreement
An international organization that has joined together for military purposes North Atlantic Treaty Organization
The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Australia and Japan and generally poorer countries of Asia,Africa and Latin America North/South divide
Areas that have been specially designed to promote business transactions and thus have become centers for banking and finance Offshore Financial center
The view that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth,maturity and old age Organic theory
An international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Sending industrial processes out for external production.the term outsourcing increasingly applies not only to traditional functions,but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations,where operating costs are low Outsourcing
A state whose territory completely surrounds that of another state Perforated state
Countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity,low per capita incomes and generally low standards of living.the world economic periphery includes Africa(except South Africa), parts of South America and Asia Periphery
Political boundaries that correspond with prominent physical features such as mountain ranges or rivers Physical boundary
The spatial analysis of political phenomenas and processes Political geography
The tally of each indivdual's vote within a given geographic area Popular vote
Economic activities in which natural resources are made available for use or further processing,including mining,agriculture,forestry and fishing Primary Economic Activities
A measure of the goods and services produced within a particular country Productivity
A state that exhibits a narrow and elongated land extensions leading away from the main territory Prorupted stste
A monetary measurement of development that takes into account what money buys in different countries Purchasing Power Parity
Economic activities concerned with research,information gathering and administration Quaternary Economic Activities
The most advanced form of quaternary activities consisting of high-level decision making of large corporations or high-level scientific research Quinary Economic Activites
The process of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories Reapportionment
A state whose territory is rectangular in shape Rectangular state
The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to population changes Redistricting
The process by which specific regions acquire characterstics that differentiate them from others within the same country. in economic geography,regionalization involves the development of dominant economic activities in particular regions Regionalization
Old political boundaries that no longer exist as international borders,but that have left an enduring mark on the local cultural or environmental geography Relic boundaries
Any natural resource that can replenish itself in a relatively short period of time,usually no longer than the length of a human life. Renewable resources
Nicholas Spyman's Theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base of world conquest Rimland Theory
A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforms them from least-developed to most-developed countries Rostow's Stages of Development
The manufacturing region in the US that is currently debilitated because many manufacturing firms have relocated to countries offering cheaper labor and relaxed environmental regulations Rust belt
Economic activities concerned with the processing of raw materials such as manufacturing,construction and power generation Secondary Economic Activities
The right of a nation to govern itself autonomously Self-determination
Those newly industrialized countries with medians standards of living, such as Chile,Brazil,India,China and Indonesia. Semi-periphery countries offer their citizens a relatively diverse economic opportunities but also have big gaps between rich and poor Semi-periphery
Highly developed economic that focus on research and development, marketing,tourism,sales and telecommunication Service-based Economics
The developing world that does not experience the benefits of high speed telecommunications and transportation technology Slow world
Supreme or independent political power; ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states Sovereighty
An input cost in manufacturing that remains constant where every production is located Spatially fixed costs
An input cost in manufacturing that changes significantly from place to place in its total amount and in its relative share of total costs Spatially variable costs
A poltically organized territory that is ruled by an established gov. with control over its internal anf foreign affairs(sovereign gov.) and is recognized by the international community State
Rights and powere believed to be in the authority of the state rather than the federal gov. State's rights
policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to encourage international trade like rasin taxes,reducin gov.spendin,controllin inflation,sellin publicly owned utilities to private corporations and chargin citizens more for sevices Structural Adjustment Program
Boundary line established after an area has been settled that considers the social and cultural characteristics of the area Subsequent boundaries
Boundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern Superimposed boundaries
Organization of three or more states to promote shared objectives Supranational Organization
The idea that people living today should be able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same Sustainable development
Any dispute over land ownership Territorial dispute
Political organization that distributes political power into more easily governed units of land Territorial Organization
Actvities that provide the market exchange of goods and that bring together consumers and providers of services such as retail,transportation,goverment,personal and professional services Tertiary Economic Activities
A state whose goverment is either believed to be divinely giuded or a state under the control of a group of religious leaders Theocracy
A firm that conducts business in at least two separate countries; also known as multinational corporations Transnational corporation
An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central goverment officials;a state governed constitutionally as a unity,without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers Unitary state
A global supranational organization established at the end of WWII to foster international security and cooperation United Nations
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy Value added
A group of cities that form an interconnected,internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce World cities
Immanuel Wallerstein explains the start of core,periphery and semi-periphery through economic and political connections 1st made at the start of exploration in the late 15century,maintained through economic access up until the present World-systems theory
Created by: ch0co1at3gr1
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