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Reproduction System


What does the female repoductive system include? ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina
What are the accessories to reproductive system? glands and external organs
What are the functions of the reproductive system? 1. produce and sustain femal sex cells (egg cells, or ova) 2. transport these cells to a site where they can be fertilized by sperm 3. develop offspring, move the offspring outside at the end of development period. and produces female sex hormones
What are the primary reproductive organs Ovaries
Where are the ovaries located? in shallow depressions called ovarian fossae
What are the ovaries covered by? Germinal (ovarian) epithelium
What is tunica albuginea? dense connective tissue capsule under the epithelium of the ovaries
What do follicles contain? contain oocytes
What appears to be more dense and granular because of numerous ovarian follicles in it? the Cortex
What are female sex cells (gametes) that develop in the ovaries by a form of Meiosis? Oogenesis
What do primitive germ cells differentiate into? oogonia
Wha is the function of Oogonia? divide rapidly to form thousands of cells with 46 chromosomes
When Oogonia enlarge what do they become? Primary Oocytes
What is the function of Primary Oocytes? replicate their DNA and bein the first Meiotic Division. Process stops in prophase
What is produced by the large cell that undergoes an unequal division so that nearly all of the cytoplasm, organelles and half the chromosomes go to one cell? Secondary Oocyte
The remaining half of chromosomes from the secondary oocytes go to smaller cell called what? First Polar Body
What are ovaries held in place by? peritoneal ligaments
What is an oocyte? female germ cell contained in each follicle
What does the Medulla consist of? abundant blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerve fibers
How many primary oocytes do you have at birth? 700,000
How many primary oocytes at puberty? 400,000
What is Meiosis I? when primary oocyte undergoes an unequal division. (all the cytoplasm, organelles and half the chromosomes). The remaining half of chromosomes go to a smaller cell First Polar Body
What does the Oovarian Follicle consist of? developing oocyte
What does Primordial Follicles consit of? a developing oocyte
How do Primary Follicles grow? under the influence of FSH
What are Granulosa Cells? several layers cells that form around primary oocyte
What is a Secondary Follicle? Granulosa cells that secrete a clear membrane around the oocyte called Zona Pellucida
How long does it take for a Graafian Follicle to mature? 10 days of growth
What is the function of the Graafian Follicle? ruptures and releases secondary oocyte into peritoneal cavity
What are Secondary Oocyte surrounded by? Zona Pellucid (consists of clear membranes) and Corona Radiata (consists of several layers of cells)
What is Corpus Luteum? Glandular structure that secretes progesterone & estrogen.
What happens when Corpus Albicans degenerates? consists of scar tissue and hormone output cases
What is the Infundibulum? The end of a fallopian tube. Which is surrounded by Fimbriae (finger like substances)
What is the Fundus? upper, bulging surface of uterus
What is the Body? large main portion of uterus
What is the Cervix? lower narrow region of the uterus that projects into the vagina
What is the Internal os? opening of the uterus between the body and cervix
What is the External os? opening of the uterus from the cervix into the vagina
What are Broad Ligaments? holds uterus in place
What are the 3 layers of the Wall of the Uterus? Perimetrium, Myometriu and Endometrium
What is Perimetrium? Outer Serous Layer of Uterus
What is Myometrium? Thick middle layer of uterus that is smooth muscle. Makes up the bulk of uterine wall
What is Endometrium? Inner layer of uterus which consists of mucous membrane
List the two mucous membrane of the Endometrium Stratum Functionale: portion sloughed off during menstrucation and 2. Stratum Basale: provides materials to rebuild stratum Functionale after menstruaction
Where is the vaginal orifice? opening of the vagina to the outside
What is the Labia Majora? two large fat filled folds of skin that enclose the other external genitalia
What is Mons Pubis? rounded elevation of fat that overlies the pubis symphysis
What are the Labia Minora? two smaller folds of skin medial to the labia majora
What is the Vestible? area between the two labia minora
What is the clitorus? small mass of erectile tissue located at anterior end of the vestibule.
What is the Prepuce? fold of skin that covers the clitoris
What are the Paraurethral Glands? open into vestible on each side of urethral orifice and secretes mucus
What are the Greater Vestibular Glands (Bartholins's glands)? open into the vestible next to the vaginal orifice
What does the Hypothalamus secrete? GnRH. It stimulates anterior pitituary to secrete FSH and small amounts of LH
What does the Anterior Pituitary secrete? FSH which stimulates growth of the ovarial follicles and stimiulates estrogen production by ovaries
What is Luteinizing Hormone (LH)? Stimulates ovulation to occur and stimulates production of progesterone and estrogen by ovaries
What do the ovaries secrete? Estroge and Progesterone
What are the two monthly cyclic patterns? Ovarian Cycle and Uterine (menstrual) cycle
What is Menarche? first peiod of menstrual bleeding
What is triggered by secretion of GnRH by hypothalamus? Follicular Phase
What is function of FSH? stimulates growth of ovarial follicles and stimulates anterior pituitary to secrete increased amount of LH and a small amount of FSH)
What happens when there is a surge of LH? stimulates resumption of meiosis in oocyte and causes rupture of mature (graafian) follice. The Oocyte is released into peritoneal cavity.
What are the 3 phases of Uterine cycle (menstrual)? 1. Menstrual Phase, 2. Prolifertive Phase and 3. Secretory Phase
When does Menstrual Phase begin? on the first day of the cycle. Stratum Functionale (outer layer of endometrium) detaches from uterine wall, passes thru vagina: menstrual flow and during this time follicles are growing in ovary
When does Prolifertive Phase begin? with the end of the menstrual phase. Lasts about 8 days
In the Proliferative Phase, what is secreted by growing follicles in Ovary? Estrogen which stimulates repair of endometrium
When does ovulation occur? After Proliferative Phase when the endometrium thickens, glands develop and blood vessels grow
When is the Secretory Phase? When Progesterone is secreted by Corpus Luteum. This stimulates continued growth and thickening of endometrium
What do glands secrete? glycogen to nourish a developing embryo if fertilization occurs
What if fertiziation does not occur? Corpus Luteum degenerates and causes menstruation to occur
Where do the first changes occur in the ovary during menopause? in the Ovary
Where are the Mammary Glands located? located in the breast: overyling the pectoralis major muscles
How many lobes of grandular tissue in each breast? 15-20
What helps to support the breasts? Connective Tissue
What determines the size and shape of breasts? Adipose Tissue
What does each lobe consist of? glandular units
What is the function of Lactiferous Duct? collects milk from the lobules and carries it to nipple
What is Lactiferous Sinus (Ampullla) Formed when laciferous duct enlarges. Serves as a reservoir for milk
At puberty what does Estrogen stimulate? development of glandular tissue and causes breast to increase in size
At puberty what does Progesterone stimulate? Development of Duct System
During pregnancy what does estrogen and progesterone enhance? development of mammary glands
What is the function of Prolactin? stimulates production of milk within the glandular tissue
What is the function of Oxytocin? causes ejection of milk from the glands
Created by: dcarafa