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Urinary System

Function of Urinary System to maintain the volume and composition of body fluids
What does the urinary system consist of? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder & urethra
What are the primary organs of urinary system? kidneys
What is Renal Fascia? connective tissue that holds each kidney in place
What is perirenal fat? thick layer of adipose tissue that surrounds each tissue.
What is function of perirenal fat? helps to protect the kidney
What is Renal Capsule? tough, fibrous connective tissue that encases each kidney
What is the hilum? indentation of kidney
What does the Hilum lead to? large cavity within the kidney called the Renal Sinus
What leaves the kidney at the Hilum? Renal Vein
What enters the kidney at the Hilum? Renal Artery
What is the Renal Cortex? The outer, reddish region
What is the Renal Medulla? a darker reddish brown region that the renal cortex surrounds
What does the Renal Medulla consist of? a Series of Renal Pyramids
What are the pointed ends of the pyramids called? Renal Papillae
What are Renal Columns? spaces between adjacent pyramids that portions of the renal cortex extend into
What is the central region of the kidney? Renal Pelvis
What are Calyces cuplike projections that interupts the periphery of the renal pelvis
What surrounds the renal papillae of each pyramid and collects urine from that pyramid Minor Calyx
What is a Major Calyx? Several minor calyces converge together to form this
Where are the Nephrons located? in the cortex and medulla
List the two parts that Nephrons consist of Renal Corpuscle and Renal Tubule
What does the renal corpuscle consist of? cluster of capillaries called Glomerulus
What surrounds the Glomerulus? a double layered epithelial cup called the Glomerular Capsule (Bowman's Capsule)
What is Afferent Arteriole? where blood GOES INTO the glomerulus
What is Efferent Arteriole? where blood EXITS the glomerulus
What is the function of Renal Tubule? carries fluid away from the glomerular capsule
List the 3 Regions of the Renal Tubule 1. Proximal Convoluted Tubule 2. Nephron Loop (Henle's loop) 3. Distal convoluted tubule
What is the proximal convoluted tubule? First portion of the tubule that is highly coiled
What forms the Nephron Loop? when the tubule straightens and dips into the medulla. It makes a U turn and ascends back toward the cortex
What is the Descending Limb? the portion of the loop that descends from the proximal convoluted tubule into the medulla
What is the Ascending Limb? the part that ascends back toward the cortex
What is the Distal Convoluted Tubule? the final region of the tubule. It is also coiled and found in the cortex
What does urin pass from the Nephrons into? collecting ducts
What forms the macula densa? the cells of the ascending limb
What forms the juxtaglomerular? when the afferent arterioles are modified
What is the function of Macula Densa? monitors sodium chloride concentration in urine and influences the juxtaglomerular cells
What produces the enzyne Renin? juxtaglomerular cells
What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus? the macula densa and juxtaglomerular cells
What is the outer layer of the wall of the Ureters? fibrous coat
What is the middle layer of the wall of the Ureters? Muscular coat
What is the inner layer of the wall of the Ureters? Mucosa
Where is the Urinary Bladder located? pelvic cavity
What is the inner lining of the urinary bladder? mucous membrane
What is the 2nd layer of the wall of the Bladder? Submucosa
What is the middle layer of the wall of the Bladder? Muscularis
What is the Detrusor Muscle? smooth muscle fibers that are interwoven in all directions
What forms the Trigone? 3 openings in the floor of the urinary bladder
What shape is the Trigone? triangular
What is the internal urethral sphincter a band of the detrusor muscle that encircles
What is the external urethral orifice? opening to the outside
What is external urethral sphincter skeletal muscle that encircles the urethra where it passes through the pelvic floor
What is the first part of the male urethra that passes through the prostate gland prostatic urethra
What is the membranous urethra second part of urethra and is short and penetrates the pelvic floor and enters the penis
What is the spongy urethra The third part of the male urethra. It is the longest region. It extends the entire length of the penis
What is the first step in the formation of urine Glomerular Filtration
What happens in the process of glomerular filtration? blood plastma moves across the filtration membrane in the renal corpuscle and enters the glomerular capsule
What is the force that moves the fluid across the membrane filtration pressure
what is the fluid that enters the capsule in glomerular filtration? filtrate
What is tubular reabsorption first process that changes the volume and composition of the filtrate
What is tubular secretion? the final formation of urine is the transport of molecules and ions into the filtrate
List 3 hormones that influence urine concentration & volume aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, and atrial natriuretic hormone
What does Renin promote the production of? Angiotensin II
What is Micturition act of expelling urine from bladder
What is the micturition reflex? stretch receptors in the bladder wall that trigger impulses
Created by: dcarafa