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NY Global Regents 13

Review Cards with most important terms and simplified definitions for AEL

QuestionAnswer
Absolute Monarchy poltical system where a king or queen has total control of the country
Adam Smith economist who invented capitalism
Adolf Hitler Fascist dictator of Germany who started WWII
Age of Absolutism Time in Europe when monarchs had total control (1500-1700)
Eureopan Age of Exploration European nations traveled the world, seeking trade routes. They gained many new lands and riches.
Axis and Allies The two sides in WWII. German led Axis, US led Allies.
Ancient China Ruled by dynasties and developed many of the most important inventions (paper, fireworks, gunpowder, magnetism)
Ancient Greece considered the birthplace of democracy. Their direct democracy included every male citizen, but no women, or slaves.
Ancient Rome Ancient Empire in Europe, still influences us in language, law, government.
Apartheid Official policy of strict segregation of races in South Africa
Aztec Empire Complex civilization that created an empire in Mexico
Bubonic Plague disease spread by rats, and trade. Killed over half of Europeans, (Middle Ages, 14th century)
Buddhism Religion started by Sidhartha Guatama that diffused from India throughout Eastern Asia
Byzantine Empire Eastern half of the Roman Empire, survived 100 years after fall of Rome.
Capitalism Economic system that encourages people to invest in order to make a profit
Caste System Aspect of Hindu beliefs that put people in a strict social hierarchy
Chinese Revolution Event where communists led by Mao Zedong took control of China (1949)
Christianity Monotheistic religion that believes Jesus is the son of God
City States way in which ancient Greece was organized
Imperialism the complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation. (Industrial Revolution)
Incan Empire Complex civilization that created an empire in the Andes Mountains in South America
Industrial Revolution change from making things by hands to using machines (AKA Industrialization) (1750-1900)
Irrigation ancient invention that brings water to farms. still important today!
Islam Monotheistic religion. Muslims pray 5 times a day to Allah, and follow many religious laws.
Religious Fundamentalism A strict or extreme interpretation of a religion. strong in Islam and Hinduism.
John Locke Father of the Enlightenement who said everyone deserved natural rights.
Judaism Oldest monotheistic faith in the world.
Karl Marx father of communism
Khmer Rouge Extreme communists who ruled Cambodia 1975-79. They committed Genocide against their own people.
Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance artist and inventor who mastered many fields of learning.
Liberation Movement Time when colonies fought and achieved independence (good nationaism)
Meiji Restoration The Industrialization of Japan, led by the Emperor Meiji. (1860-1880)
Mercantilism Economic system where Mother Countries used colonies to get rich (Triangle Trade)
Middle Ages Time in Euorpe between the Fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance (500CE-1500CE)
Militarism belief that the strenth of a country rests in the power of its military.
Mahatma Gandhi Nationalist leader of India's independence movement (good nationalist)
Mongol Empire Empire created by Genghis Khan that stretched from China to Europe (1200-1400)
Monotheism belief in one god
Napoleon Bonaparte Leader who became emperor after the French Revolution
Bad Nationalism belief that your group is superior to all others (racism)
good Nationalism desire for a free and independent country
Nelson Mandela First black president of South Africa after Apartheid.
Neolithic Revolution The change from hunting to farming. (10,000BC)
Nomad person who has to travel from place to place.
Nuclear Weapons bombs that use the energy stored in atoms to create a huge explosion
Ottoman Empire Muslim empire that controlled the Middle East until WWI.
Polytheism belief in many gods
Renaissance a time of cultural rebirth in Europe (golden age)
River Civilizations The first societies to farm (Neolithic Revolution) 8000-5000BC
Russian Revolution Change from monarchy to communism in Russia in 1917.
Simon Bolivar Leader of South American war of independence against Spain.
Latin American Revolutions When South America gained independence from Europe (1800-1830)
Toussaint L'Overture Former slave who led Haiti's independence from France
Treaty of Versailles Treaty that ended WWI, but it was bad that it helped create WWII.
United Nations Global Organization created after WWII to maintain world peace and protect human rights.
Urbanization process where cities grow, causing many problems for people.
West African Kingdoms traded salt and gold across Sahara Desert (Mali and Ghana)
World War One The first modern world war (1914-1918)
World War Two (1939-1945) Global war against fascism
Rwanda African nation where Hutu tribe committed Genocide against the Tutsi tribe (1994)
Scarcity there are limited resources, unlimited wants--this leads to inequality and conflict.
Human Environmental Interation how we are affected by the environment, and how we disturb the natural environment.
Great Britain former mother country and important ally of the United States (AKA, UK, England, Britain, and British Empire)
Deforestation a process where forest is lost to development. example: Amazon Rainforest
Agriculture Growing food or animals to sustain life. Started with the Neolithic Revolution,
Least Developed Countries These are the poorest nations in the world, with low income, low life expectancy, and high rates of disease.
Columbian Exchange the exchange of food, organisms, and ideas after the voyage of Columbus (1492). Led to death of most Native Americans from disease.
Triangle Trade The exchange of Slaves, Sugar, and Rum (andf other stuff) across the Atlantic Oceean between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. (Mercantilism)
Globalization Global interaction of culture, and the shift of production to countries like China, from the United States.
constitution A document that sets up the government and laws of a country, including rights. (human rights, Enlightenment)
M.A.I.N. militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism--causes of WWI Answer: the 4 causes of WWI
Totalitarianism 20th century political system--similar to Absolute Monarchy, but ruled by a dictator.
Simon Bolivar "the George Washington of Latin America", South American soldier and statesman who led the revolutions against Spanish rule.
Encomienda Spain granted permission to conquistadors to enslave as many people needed to work a plantation. (roots of slavery)
Silk Road a network of trade routes that stretched across deserts and mountains between Europe and Asia.
Factory System During the Industrial Revolution, factories increased production.
India and Pakistan These two countries were both formed when India gained independence. There have been wars ever since. (1947)
Islamic Golden Age A time of advanced learning and culture in the Middle East, with many inventions and innovation in math, science. (800-1200AD)
Holocaust Adolph Hitler, Nazi Dictator of Germany, led the murder of over 12 million Jews, Gypsies and others, during WWII.
Created by: schwartzy