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Circulatory System


apex pointed end of heart
base Top of heart. Has several large vessels attached to it
pericardium loose-fitting double-layered sac that encloses the heart
parietal pericardium serous membrane that lines pericardium
visceral pericardium parietal pericardium reflects onto the surface of the heart to form the visceral pericardium. (Also called the epicardium)
pericardial cavity small space between the parietal & visceral layers of pericardium
epicardium outer layer of heart wall. It's a thin protective layer that is firmly anchored to the underlying muscle
myocardium thick middle layer. It forms the bulk of heart wall and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue
endocardium smooth inner lining of heart. It permits the blood to move through heart
Where do the two atria chambers receive blood from? veins
What does the right atrium receive from the superior vena cava? receives deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava
Where does the superior vena cava return blood to heart? from the head, neck and upper extremities
Where does the inferior vena cava return blood to the heart from? returns blood to the heart from the thorax, abdomen & pelvis & lower extremities
What is the interatrial septum partition that separates the R&L atria
What is the function of the right ventricle? receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it out to the lungs
What is the function of the left ventricle? receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it out to the tissue of the whole body
What is the interventricular septum? thick muscular partition that separates the R&L ventricles
Where are atrioventricular valves (AV)located? (the Triscupid & Mitral Valves) Valves between the atria and ventricles
Where are the semilunar valves (SV) located? at the base of the large vessels leaving the ventricles
what is the function of the AV valves? (the tricuspid & mitral valves) they permit the flow of blood from the atria into the corresponding ventricle. They also prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricles into the atria
What are the Cusps made of? fibrous connective tissue ring and double folds of endocardium
chordae tendinease tissue strings that attach the valve cusps and the papillary muscles in the ventricles
Where is the Biscuspid valve (mitral valve) located? AV valves between the left atrium and left ventricle. Two cusps
Where are SL valves located? at the base of the large vessels that carry blood from the ventricles
Where is the pulmonary SL valve located? valve at the exit of the right ventricle in the base of the pulmonary truck
Where is the aortic SL valve located? at the exit of the left ventricle in the base of the ascending aorta
What is pulmonary circulation? when the "right pump" pumps the blood to the lungs
What is systemic circulation? when the "left pump" pumps blood to the rest of the body
What are the two main coronary arteries called? Right and Left Coronary Arteries
Where are the coronary arteries located? branch from the ascending aorta just distal to the aortic SL valve
When is the bloodflow to the coronary arteries the greatest? when the myocardium is relaxed
What reduces the flow to the coronary arteries? when the ventricles contract, they compress the arteries which reduce the flow
What is the function of the heart? to pump blood to lungs through pulmonary circulation and pump blood to the rest of the body through systematic circulation
Where is the sinoatrial node (SA) located? in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava
What is the function of the sinoatrial node (SA node)? rhythmically initiates impulses 70-80 times per minute
Nickname for SA node? Pacemaker of the heart
Where is the Atrioventricular node (AV node) located? in the floor of the right atrium near the interatrial septum
What is the function of the AV node? conducts impulses more slowly than other parts of the conduction system, so there is a brief time delay as the impulses travel through the node
Why is there a delay as the impulses travel through the AV node? it allows for the atria to finish their contraction phase before the ventricles begin contracting
What does the AV Bundle consist of? Atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches and conduction myofibers
What is another name for the AV bundle? Bundle of His
Where are the bundle branches located? they extend along the right and left sides of the interventricular septum to the apex
What forms conduction myofibers? bundle branches branch profusely
What is the Cardiac Cycle? the alternating contraction and relaxation of the heart chambers during one heartbeat
What is the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle called? systole
What is the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle? diastole
Where is the atrioventricular valve located? valve between an atrium and a ventricle in heart
What is the cardiac cycle a complete heartbeat consisting of contraction and relaxation of both atria and both ventricles.
What are conduction myofibers cardiac muscle cells specialized for conducting action potentials to the myocardium. Also called pukinje fibers
What is diapedesis process by which white blood cells squeeze between the cells in a vessel wall to enter the tissue spaces outside the blood vessel
What is erythropoiesis process of red blood cell formation
What is erythropoietin hormone released by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production
What is hemocytoblast a stem cell in the bone marrow from which the blood cells arise
What is hematopoiesis blood cell production which occurs in the red bone marrow
Where is the semilunar valve located and what does it do? valve between a ventricle of the heart and the vessel that carries blood away from the ventricle.
Created by: dcarafa