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20th Century History

What did the Mexican Revolution call into question? Democracy does not mean control is in the hands of the people
What kind of government controlled Mexico at the time of the Mexican Revolution? Oligarchy (small group of bourgeoisie)
Name two things the Mexicans wanted. (Mexican rev.) Land and liberty
Who lead the NORTHERN Mexican revolution? Emiliano Zapato
Who lead the SOUTHERN Mexican revolution? Pancho Villa
Women also participated in the Mexican army. What where they called? (Mexican rev.) Soldaderas
What was the new radical development in art called? (Mexican rev.) Muralism (public art in public spaces)
Name two Mexican muralists. Frieda Kahlo and Diego Rivera
Was the Mexican Revolution successful? Not really, the bourgeoisie are still in power, however there definitely was some sort of land reform.
Name an important piece of legislation enacted as a result of the Mexican Revolution. The Mexican Constitution of 1917
During what years did the Mexican Revolution take place? 1910-1920
During what year did the Chinese Revolution take place? 1911
True or false: the Chinese Revolution was peaceful. True: there were no armed uprisings.
Was China industrialized during its revolution? There was a small degree of industrialization in the coastal areas, but generally, no.
Was the Chinese Revolution a success? Yes, in 1911 it was free from imperial rule and officially a republic.
Who was the first president of Republican China? Sun Yat Sen
When did the Russian Revolution take place? October/November 1917
What was the Russian Rev. influenced by? English/American/French revolutions
Was it considered a bourgeois, proletariat or peasant revolution? (Russian rev.) Peasant - vast majority (80%) of population worked in agriculture
Name a thinker who criticized peasant revolution. Karl Marx
Name two intellectual writers who were critical of tsarist rules. Leon Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky
Where does the word "czar" come from? Caesar
Which tsar was in power at the time of the Russian Revolution? Tsar Nicholas II
What was wrong with Tsar Nicholas II? He was divorced from the lives of the majority and when he tried to reform, it was too little too late.
Which political party believed the best choice was gradual political reform rather than forced, quick revolution? (Russian rev.) Constitutional Democrats
Which political party believed in radical change without revolution? (Russian rev.) Social Revolutionaries
Which party was inspired by Marxist thinking? (Russian rev.) Social Democrats
Which group held the most powerful political power in Russia? (Russian rev.) Bolsheviks
Which party advocated violence and assassination? (Russian rev.) Anarchists
Which event made the tsar realize change in Russia was necessary and that things could get out of hand very quickly? (Russian rev.) Winter Palace, Bloody Sunday 1905
What is the Russian parliament called? (Russian rev.) The Duma
What is the problem with the Russian parliament? (Russian rev.) It's made up of bourgeoisies and the majority still don't have enough representation.
What is the name of the group of peasants, workers and soldiers who challenged the Russian parliament? Petrograd Soviet
Who leads the Bolsheviks? (Russian rev.) Lenin
Why was Lenin allowed to return from exile? (Russian rev.) So Germany wouldn't have to fight a war on two separate fronts.
What happened on November 7th, 1917? (Russian rev.) The Bolsheviks seize power in Petrograd.
Who believed that one of the key aspects of communism was about organizing to make change happen? Lenin
What did the Bolsheviks and Lenin launch to keep the Russian economy alive? New Economic Policy (which encouraged private ownership)
What is the name of the Russians who did NOT want the revolution to spread? The Whites
Who wanted to expand the revolution outside Russia? (internationalism) Trotsky
What is the new art form that comes about during the Russian Revolution? Social Realism
Who made famous films concerning the Russian Revolution? Eisenstein
What is the name of the Russian naval ship that helped swing the tide in favor of the Russian revolution? Potemkin
Name the Russian woman who believed the power was in the hands of the proletariat, not the peasants. Alexandra Kollontai
Who was able to overcome Trotsky? (Russian rev.) Stalin
True or false: Stalin managed to institutionalize the ideas of the socialist state. True
What is it called when you have people electing representatives for the Soviet government? Democratic centralism
Bismarck's unified Germany was overthrown by which king? Kaiser Wilhelm II
What is oxymoronic about the arms race? It creates tension, but allows for peace.
Which are the main countries that make up the Triple Alliance? Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
What is the Triple Alliance called when the Ottomans join? The Central Powers
Which are the main countries that make up the Triple Entente? Britain, Russia and France
Why did Russia choose to ally with Britain and France? They lacked a warm water port and wanted to get more territory through France and Britain.
What is so surprising about Britain and France being allies? They were never allies before, but were brought together because they had common enemies.
Who wrote the Communist Manifesto? Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Who wrote On Liberty and what was it about? John Stuart Mill - the liberal notion of individualism
Who wrote Origin of Species? Charles Darwin
There was a growing sense of _____ during the time of WWI. Nationalism
Name the man in charge of the communist party of China. Mao
True or false: the revolution in China was a proletariat revolution. False - it was a peasant revolution
During which years did the Boer War take place? 1899-1902
Who were the two parties involved in the Boer War? The Dutch settlers (Boers) and the people of South Africa
True or false: the Dutch took over South Africa peacefully. False - it was a bloody and brutal war
What is the "death knell"? Death toll that rises slowly but surely
When was the Partition of Bengal? 1905
Which population represented the Eastern part of Bengal? Muslim
Which population represented the Western part of Bengal? Hindu
What is the spark that caused World War I? The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on _____ (WWI) Serbia
_____ comes to Serbia's defence (WWI) Russia
_____ declares war on Russia (WWI) Germany
_____ advises Russia not to back down (WWI) France
_____ declares war on France (WWI) Germany
_____ invades Belgium (WWI) Germany
_____ defends Belgium by declaring war on Germany (WWI) Britain
The development of what new transportation technology allowed countries to surprise their enemy? Submarines
What was the problem with trench warfare? Countries would win a few yards and then retreat a few yards
Name two advantages of armored tanks. 1) Can move on rough ground 2) Can hold many troops
Which kinds of machine guns would fire continuously? Vickers
_____ were used in warfare and _____ were used to spy. (WWI) Airplanes and zeppelins
Name two poets who wrote about the horrors of WWI. Wilfred Owen and Rupert Brooke
True or false: women were also sent to war. (WWI) Yes - as nurses and aids
Was WWI a quick war or attrition? Attrition (slow as opposed to quick)
What kind of war is one that involves the mobilization of entire populations? Total war
Which famous writer's fiance died and consequently wrote the Testament of Youth? Vera Brittain
Which German novelist documented the horrors of war and questioned "who really wins?" Erich Maria Remarque
What is the Balfour Declaration? A short, typed letter to Baron Rothschild signed by Mr. Balfour on behalf of Zionist Jews who wanted their own home country
Who pointed out that creating new boundaries often leaves those originally living there on the fringes? Rabindarath Tagore
Which country were the Zionist Jews offered to use as their homeland? Uganda
Various nations came to Paris to sign which treaty at the end of WWI? Treaty of Versailles
Which country ultimately had to pay for the war damages at the Treaty of Versailles? Germany
Which British man disagreed with the condemnation of Germany at the Treaty of Versailles for fear of economic struggle? John Maynard Keynes
Which empire breaks up as a result of the Treaty of Versailles? Ottoman Empire
Which men represented Britain, France and the USA at the Treaty of Versailles? Britain - Churchill, France - Clemenceau, USA - Wilson
Which document did the Americans draft as a response to WWI? The Fourteen Points
What are the two main concerns of the USA after WWI? 1) All nations should have the right to self-governance 2) There should be an organization that ensures peace in the world (League of Nations)
Name 3 countries that come into existence after the Treaty of Versailles. Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia
Which man used the Turkish army as a vehicle for introducing modernity in government? Mustapha Kemal (Ataturk)
Which genocide is not generally recognized in world history? Armenian Genocide
Name three results of WWI. 1) Decline of liberalism (maybe individual rights aren't the way to go) 2) Anti-colonial upsurge (just because you're white doesn't mean you're better) 3) Government intervention in domestic affairs (necessary to deal with economic hardship)
Who was the fascist leader of Italy? Mussolini
Which member of the communist party of Italy wrote the Prison Notebooks when he was thrown in jail by Italian fascists? Antonio Gramsci
What group symbolizes the strength of Rome? Fasci di Combattimento (League of Combat)
Name four factors contributing to fascism. 1) Economic crises (Great Depression) 2) Nationalism (humiliated nations must be resurgent) 3) Militarism (peace is for the weak) 4) Gender aspects (women are homemakers, the state is for men)
Why did industrialists (capitalists) support fascism? Labor unrest would be smashed and communist parties would be abolished and their money-making abilities would not be compromised.
True or false: There were fascist parties outside Italy. True
Who believed art was the only way to fuel the beliefs of an elite group? Bertolt Brecht
What are the three k's that describe the (antiquated) female role model? Kinder, kuche, kirche (children, kitchen, church)
During which years did the Spanish Civil War take place? 1936-1939
True or false: Spain was industrialized at the time. False - they were almost feudal, there was a landowning elite
A coalition of _____ and ______ had come into power and were in the process of institutionalizing various reform measures. Liberals and radicals
Which party regarded the new republican government with horror? Conservatives
Why was the Spanish army unavailable to mediate the growing tensions in Spain? They were busy in Morocco
Which fascist general moved north to attempt a coup d'etat? General Francisco Franco
Which man began to aid the right-wing fascist side of the civil war? Mussolini
Why did Hitler regard the Spanish Civil War as an opportunity to use it as a "laboratory of war"? He experimented with different war methods such as aerial bombing.
Why was the Spanish Civil War unjust? The left-wings were not supported with military supplies.
Why didn't foreign countries intervene in the Spanish Civil War? After the atrocities of WWI, neutrality was the policy of many countries.
Which group of young people emerges to go fight in Spain? the International Brigades
Which Picasso painting famously depicts a pivotal moment during the Spanish Civil War? Bombing of Guernica
For how many years were the Nazis in power? Three
True or false: Hitler was elected as head of state. False - he was appointed
What essentially allowed Hitler to gain so much power? He delegitimized the communists.
Which Nazi version of Coca Cola used propaganda in their advertisements? Fanta
True or false: the pope was actively involved in Hitler's reign. False - he was passive
Why did people choose fascism over communism? It seemed like the lesser of the two evils.
Who wrote a poem about the struggle in choosing which side to support in any given war? Martin Neimoller
Which Canadian doctor was a member of the communist party and traveled to China to provide medical assistance there? Norman Bethune
Which neurologist founded the Montreal neurological institute? Walter Penfield
What were the Chinese nationalists otherwise known as? Kuomintang
What was formed in Russia in order to support the seeds of revolution? The Comintern
Which word is a synonym for "traitor" in WWII? Quisling
What is known as a "lightning strike" military tactic in WWII? Blitzkrieg
What exactly did the Nazis want, also known as "living space"? Lebensraum
What did the allies practice towards Germany after the Treaty of Versailles? appeasement
Which country is given to Germany as a "sacrificial lamb"? Czechoslovakia
What year marks the start of World War II and why? 1939, Nazis invade Poland
Which two bombings end World War II? Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Which event causes the USA to get involved in WWII? Pearl Harbor
What kind of bombs managed to flatten the German city of Dresden, thus lowering German morale? Fire bombings
Why did millions die in Bengal in 1934? Food was being taken from civilians to feed the ally troops, thus causing widespread famine throughout the country.
What is the largest battle in WWII? (generated 2 million+ causalities) Stalingrad
What is the name of the Hitler-Stalin pact? Nonaggression pact
What was particular about this Hitler-Stalin pact? Neither actually intended on following it, and Germany eventually breaks the pact and targets the Soviets.
Which US president backed the economics of armaments (i.e. the idea that war is good for business)? Eisenhower
Name a scientist working on the atomic bomb. Leo Szilard
What did Churchill call the converging ally forces and the notion that areas that come under the Soviets become become part of the "Eastern Block"? Iron Curtain
Why is considered a "Cold" war? Because there's no active firing of arms, just the building of nuclear arms which leads to tensions between nations.
Which military alliance emerged as a potential measure of deterrence? NATO (North Atlantic Trade Organization)
Which military alliance was created to counterbalance NATO? The Warsaw Pact
Britain formed what group in order to maintain economic connections with de-colonized countries? British Commonwealth
Which was the first country to gain its independence from Britain? India
In what year did the Chinese communist party take control of China? 1949
Where did the Chinese nationalists flee to? Taiwan
Where does the term "third world" come from? The countries who are recently de-colonized and want to create their own destinies establish a "third block" made of the heads of states.
Name an intellectual who wrote about dealing with de-colonization. Frantz Fanton
What kind of struggles did Fanton deal with? Name two book he wrote. The fact that he was a black Frenchman from Martinique. He wrote "The Wretched of the Earth" and "Black Skin White Mask"
The third world chose to side with neither NATO or the Warsaw Pact. What did they call themselves? NAM: Non-Aligned Movement
Name two sub-military alliances that were formed with NATO. CENTO (involving Turkey) and SEATO (involving Southeast Asia)
What was it called when a country would decide to concentrate on agricultural output as a means of economic growth? Five Year Plan
Why was debt an issue for third world countries? They had to get back on track (economically) and fast, which meant taking out loans
There were hot wars fought between countries coming out of colonialism. What were they called? Proxy wars
Which bank loaned money to countries? World Bank
What is the plan of economic subsistence for post-World War Europe (to help it get out of devastation)? The Marshall Plan
What are the major war crime trials of the period and during which years did they take place? Nuremberg Trials (1944-46)
Who coined the term "genocide"? Raphael Lemkin
When did the Convention on Genocide take place and what was its purpose? In 1948 to determine the factors that declared any given event a "genocide"
Which 1948 document expresses right to life and freedom for all mankind? Universal Declaration of Human Rights
What is the problem with a "universal"? Minority groups tend to slip through the cracks.
What is the conceptual term to talk about intellectual critique for analyzing events? Post-modernism
What is a common criticism of post-modernism? It gets too involved with specifics and forgets universals
Which parties were involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis? Cuba, USA, Russia
Why is 1989 an important year? Fall of the Berlin Wall and break-up of Soviet Russia
Which peoples were demonized during the Cold War besides the communists? Muslims
Tensions rose between which two peoples in India? Muslims and Hindus
What two groups did these two peoples divide themselves into? Muslim League vs. Congress (Ghandi, etc)
What was the Congress' POV on the tensions in India? They thought partitioning the Muslims would cause further tensions and religious divide and differences.
When did the India-Pakistan partition take place? 1947
What are the rulers in India called? Maharajas
Name a place in India that was particularly difficult to divide. Kashmir
Why was it difficult to divide? Its population was mostly Muslim but its maharaja was Hindu
How many wars were fought during the India-Pakistan partition? Four
What are three historiographic problems with the India-Pakistan partition? 1) It was a consequence of Muslim-Hindu conflicts. (FALSE-India was multi-religious) 2) Muslim League wanted a separate country from the beginning (FALSE-they just wanted some control over domestic affairs) 3) Map drawing was done without consultation
When does the UN declare the partition between Israel and Palestine? 1948
What are two controversial areas in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? West Bank and Gaza Strip
Created by: ericaf