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A&P 2 - E5 - P1

A&P 2 - Exam 5 - Part 1 - Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
The endocrine and nervous systems function to achieve and maintain ______. homeostasis
When the endocrine and nervous systems work together it is referred to as the ________ system. neuroendocrine
The endocrine and nervous systems work together to perform the same general functions of ______, ______, and ______. communication, integration, control
In the endocrine system, secreting cells send ______ molecules via the blood to specific ______. hormone, target cells
______ are carried to almost every point in the body. hormones
Hormones can _______ most cells. regulate
Hormone effects work more _____ and last ______ than those of neurotransmitters. slowly, longer
Hormone effects work more slowly and last longer than those of ______. neurotransmitters
Endocrine glands are "______ glands". ductless
Many endocrine glands are made of glandular ______, whose cells manufacture and secrete _______. epithelium, hormones
A few endocrine glands are made of _______ tissue. neurosecretory
______ of the endocrine system are widely scattered throughout the body. glands
______ hormones are hormones that target other endocrine glands and stimulate their growth and secretion. tropic
______ hormones are hormones that target reproductive tissues. sex
______ hormones are hormones that stimulate anabolism in target cells. anabolic
The two classifications of hormones by chemical structure are ______ and ______. steroid, nonsteroid
Steroid hormones are synthesized from ______. cholesterol
______ hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. steroid
Steroid hormones are _____ soluble and can easily pass through the _______ plasma of target cells. lipid, phospholipid
What are 5 examples of steroid hormones? estrogen, progesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, testosterone
Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized primarily from _______. amino acids
______ hormones are synthesized primarily from amino acids. nonsteroid
______ hormones are long, folded chains of amino acids. protein
What are 2 examples of protein hormones? insulin, parathyroid
______ hormones are protein hormones with carbohydrate groups attached to the amino acid chain. glycoprotein
Glycoprotein hormones are protein hormones with ______ attached to the amino acid chain. carbohydrate groups
______ hormones are shorter than protein hormones consisting of a short chain of amino acids. peptide
What are 2 examples of peptide hormones? oxytocin, antidiuretic
______ hormones are hormones in which each is derived from a single amino acid molecule. amino acid derivative
______ hormones are synthesized by modifying a single molecule of tyrosine produced by neurosecretory cells and neurons. amine
Amine hormones are synthesized by modifying a single molecule of ______ produced by neurosecretory cells and neurons. tyrosine
Amine hormones are synthesized by modifying a single molecule of tyrosine produced by ______ cells and ______. neurosecretory, neurons
What are 2 examples of amine hormones? epinephrine, norepinephrine
Amino acid derivatives are produced by the ______ gland. thyroid
Amino acid derivatives are synthesized by adding ______ to ______. iodine, tyrosine
Hormones signal a cell by binding to the target cell's specific _______ in a "______" mechanism. receptors, lock and key
Different hormone receptor interactions produce different regulatory changes within the target cell through ______. chemical reactions
______ is combinations of hormones acting together that have a greater effect on a target cell than the sum of the effects that each would have if acting alone. synergism
_______ is when a small amount of one hormone allows a second one to have its full effects on a target cell. permissiveness
________ is when one hormone produces the opposite effects of another hormone. antagonism
_______ is used to "fine tune" the activity of target cells with great accuracy. antagonism
Endocrine glands produce more _______ molecules than actually are needed. hormone
Unused hormones are quickly excreted by the ______ or broken down by ______ processes. kidneys, metabolic
Steroid hormones are lipid-soluble, and their receptors are normally found in the target cell's _______. cytosol
Once a steroid hormone molecule has _______ into the target cell, it binds to a receptor molecule to form a ________. diffused, hormone-receptor complex
_______ hypothesis - the hormone passes into the nucleus, where it binds to mobile receptor and activates a certain gene sequence to begin transcription of mRNA. mobile-receptor
The hormone passes into the nucleus, where it binds to a _______ and activates a certain gene sequence to begin _______ of mRNA. mobile receptor, transcription
Newly formed mRNA molecules move into the ________, associate with ribosomes, and begin synthesizing ________. cytosol, protein
Newly formed _______ molecules move into the cytosol, associate with _______, and begin synthesizing protein. mRNA, ribosomes
_______ hormones regulate cells by regulating production of certain critical proteins. steroid
The amount of steroid hormone present determines the _______ of a target cell's response. magnitude
The amount of _______ hormone present determines the magnitude of a target cell's response. steroid
Since transcription and protein synthesis take time, responses to steroid hormones are often _______. slow
Since _______ and _______ take time, responses to steroid hormones are often slow. transcription, protein synthesis
The _______ is also known as the fixed-membrane-receptor hypothesis. second messenger mechanism
The second messenger mechanism is also known as the _______ hypothesis. fixed-membrane-receptor
A nonsteroid hormone molecule acts as a "______ messenger". first
A _______ hormone molecule acts as a "first messenger". nonsteroid
A nonsteroid hormone delivers its chemical message to _______ in the target cell's ________. fixed receptors, plasma membrane
A _______ hormone delivers its chemical message to fixed receptors in the target cell's plasma membrane. nonsteroid
The "message" is then passed by way of a _______ into the cell where a "second messenger" triggers the appropriate cellular changes. g-protein
In a second messenger mechanism the effects of the hormone are ________ by the cascade of reactions. amplified
What are 4 examples of second messenger mechanisms? IP3, GMP, cAMP, calcium-calmodulin mechanisms
The _______ mechanism operates much more quickly than the steroid mechanism. second messenger
The second messenger mechanism operates much more quickly than the _______ mechanism. steroid
The ______ mechanism occurs when small iodinated amino acids enter the target cell and bind to receptors associated with a DNA molecule in the nucleus. nuclear receptor
The nuclear receptor mechanism occurs when small _______ amino acids enter the target cell and bind to receptors associated with a _______ molecule in the nucleus. iodinated, DNA
Binding in the nuclear receptor mechanism triggers transcription of _______ and synthesis of new _______. mRNA, enzymes
Control of hormonal secretion is usually part of a ______ and is called _______. negative feedback loop, endocrine reflexes
Simplest mechanism is when an endocrine gland is sensitive to the _______ changes produced by its _______. physiological, target cells
Endocrine gland secretion may also be regulated by a hormone produced by another ________. gland
Endocrine gland secretions may be influenced by ________ input; this fact emphasizes the close functional relationship between the two systems. nervous system
_______ are a unique group of lipid molecules that serve important and widespread integrative functions in the body but do not meet the usual definition of a hormone. prostaglandins
Prostaglandins are a unique group of _______ molecules that serve important and widespread integrative functions in the body but do not meet the usual definition of a hormone. lipid
Prostaglandins are called _______ hormones, since the secretion is produced in a tissue and diffuses only a ________ to other cells within the same tissue. tissue, short distance
_______ are called tissue hormones, since the secretion is produced in a tissue and diffuses only a short distance to other cells within the same tissue. prostaglandins
_______ tend to integrate activities of neighboring cells. prostaglandins
Many structural classes of ______ have been isolated and identified. prostaglandins
The pituitary gland is also known as the ________ and called the "_______". hypophysis, master gland
The _______ is also known as the hypophysis and called the "master gland". pituitary gland
The size of the pituitary gland is about ______ across. 1 inch
The pituitary gland is located on the ______ surface of the brain within the skull. ventral
The ________ is a stemlike stalk that connects pituitary to the hypothalamus. infundibulum
The pituitary gland is made up of two separate glands, the _______ (anterior pituitary gland) and the _______ (posterior pituitary gland). adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis
The adenohypophysis is divided into 2 parts, the _______ and the _______. par anterior, pars intermedia
The _______ forms the major portion of the adenohypophysis. par anterior
The tissue of the adenohypophysis is composed of irregular clumps of _______ supported by fine connective tissue fibers and surrounded by a rich ________. secretory cells, vascular network
Three types of cells within the adenohypophysis can be identified according to their ______ for certain ______. affinity, stains
What are cells within the adenohypophysis that do not stain? chromophobes
What are cells within the adenohypophysis that stain with acid stains? acidophils
What are cells within the adenohypophysis that stain with basic stains? basophils
What are five functional types of secretory cells within the adenohypophysis? somatotrophs, corticotrophs, thyrotrophs, lactotrophs, gonadotrophs
Somatotrophs secrete _______. growth hormone (GH)
Corticotrophs secrete _______ and _______. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
Thyrotrophs secrete _______. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Lactotrophs secrete _______. prolactin (PRL)
Gonadotrophs secrete _______ and _______. luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
Growth hormone (GH) is also known as ________. somatotropin (STH)
_______ is also known as somatotropin (STH). growth hormone (GH)
Growth hormone (GH) promotes the growth of bone, muscle, and other tissues by accelerating _______ transport into the cells. amino acid
Growth hormone (GH) stimulates ________ by mobilizing lipids from storage in _______ cells and speeding up catabolism of the lipids after they have entered another cell. fat metabolism, adipose
_______ stimulates fat metabolism by mobilizing lipids from storage in adipose cells and speeding up _______ of the lipids after they have entered another cell. Growth hormone (GH), catabolism
Growth hormone (GH) tends to shift cell chemistry away from _______ catabolism and toward _______ catabolism as an energy source. glucose, lipid
Growth hormone (GH) leads to increased blood _______ levels. glucose
Growth hormone (GH) functions as an _________ and is vital to maintaining homeostasis of blood glucose levels. insulin antagonist
During pregnancy, prolactin (PRL) promotes the development of the breasts, anticipating ________. milk secretion
After the baby is born, prolactin (PRL) stimulates the mother's ________ to produce milk. mammary glands
Tropic hormones are hormones that have a _______ effect on other _________. stimulating, endocrine glands
_______ hormones are hormones that have a stimulating effect on other endocrine glands. tropic
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is also known as _______. thyrotropin
_______ promotes and maintains the growth and development of the thyroid. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
_______ causes the thyroid to secrete its hormones. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is also known as _______. adrenocorticotropin
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) promotes and maintains normal growth and development of the cortex of the ______. adrenal gland
_______ stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete some of its hormones. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the female, stimulates ________ to grow toward maturity. primary graafian follicles
In females, _______ stimulates the follicle cells to secrete estrogens. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
In males, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the development of the _______ of the testes and maintains _______. seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis
In females, luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the formation and activity of the ________ of the ovary. corpus luteum
The corpus luteum secretes _______ and _______ when stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). progesterone, estrogens
_______ supports follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in stimulating the maturation of follicles. luteinizing hormone (LH)
In males, luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ________ in the testes to develop and secrete ________. interstitial cells, testosterone
FSH and LH are called _________ because they stimulate the growth and maintenance of the gonads. gonadotropins
_______ works with other hormones to modulate the pigmentation of normal skin. melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)
The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones into the blood, which are then carried to the ________. hypophyseal portal system
Hypophyseal portal system carries blood from the _______ directly to the _______ where the target cells of the releasing hormones are located. hypothalamus, adenohypophysis
Releasing hormones influence the secretion of hormones by _______ and _______. acidophils, basophils
Through _______, the hypothalamus adjusts the secretions of the adenohypophysis. negative feedback
In stress, the hypothalamus translates nerve impulses into _______ by endocrine glands, basically creating a mind-body link hormone secretions
The neurohypophysis serves as a storage and release site for _______ and ________ which are synthesized in the ________. antidiuretic hormone (ADH), oxytocin (OT), hypothalamus
The release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OT) into the blood is controlled by ________ stimulation. nervous
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Prevents the formation of a large volume of urine, thereby helping the body ________ water. conserve
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes a portion of each tubule in the kidney to reabsorb _______ from the urine it has formed. water
_________,detected by osmoreceptors, triggers the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). dehydration
Oxytocin (OT) causes ________ from the lactating breast. milk ejection
Oxytocin (OT) is regulated by a _________ feedback mechanism. positive
Prolactin (PRL) cooperates with _______. oxytocin (OT)
Oxytocin (OT) stimulates the contraction of ________ that occurs during childbirth. uterine muscles
Created by: K1N1V