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Veterinary Osteopath

VETERINARY-Genetic and acquired skeletal abnormalities

Name the 3 generalised skeletal dysplasias 1) Chondrodysplasias 2) Osteogenesis imperfecta 3) Osteopetrosis
Finish the sentence. Chondrodysplasia is a... ...defect in cartilage formation
Finish the sentence. Osteogenesis imperfecta is a... ...defect in bone formation
Finish the sentence. Osteopetrosis is a... ...defect in bone remodeling
Name the 2 most common types of chondrodysplasia in cattle "Bulldog type" and Brachycephalic "snorter" type
Chondrodysplasias cause disproportionate dwarfism. True or False? True
Which type of chondrodysplasia in cattle is the most severe, most common in Dexter breed, and produces aborted fetuses with extremely short limbs, domed forehead, retruded muzzle, protruding mandible and tongue, + abdominal hernia? Bulldog type chondrodysplasia
What type of cattle chondrodysplasia produces animals with a short head, bulging forehead, protruding mandible, shortened vertebral column and are predisposed to chronic bloat? Brachycephalic "snorter" type chondrodysplasia
Both "Bulldog" and "Snorter" types of chondrodysplasia are autosomal recessive. True or False? True
Name the 2 most common types of chondrodysplasia in sheep Spider lamb syndrome and Texel sheep chondrodysplasia
Spider lamb syndrome is the most common form of autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia in sheep. True or False True
What breed of sheep is Spider Lamb Syndrome most commonly found in? Suffolk sheep in US but also Hampshire
Name 3 physical characteristics that would lead you to a diagnosis of Spider Lamb Syndrome in an affected Suffolk sheep. 1) Disproportionately long and deformed limbs 2) Roman nose 3) Kyphosis or scoliosis
What type of chondrodysplasia in sheep would you be likely to diagnose if the animal had a reduced growth rate, short neck, stilted gait, wide-based stance (looks like a table), varus limb deformites,and had exercise intolerance (tracheal collapse)? Chondrodysplasia in Texel sheep
What causes Texel sheep chondrodysplasia? Defect in sulfation of glycosaminoglycans in cartilage matrix
Name the skeletal dysplasia that occurs due to a defect in type 1 collagen formation, has a dominant inheritance, and excessive bone fragility. Osteogenesis imperfecta
What clinical signs would lead you to possible diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta? Marked bone fragility, intra-uterine and intra-partum fractures, marked joint laxity, translucent pink/grey teeth, blue sclera,and tissue paper thin/fragile skin (sheep)
Solid bones with no marrow cavity would lead you to what possible diagnosis? Osteopetrosis
Animals with osteopetrosis have stronger bones than normal. True of False? False, although the bones are solid, they are more fragile and animals are usually unable to stand on them
Give some examples of localised skeletal dysplasias in the limbs. Syndactyly, Adactyly, Polydactyly, Hemimelia, Amelia
What words refer to an undershot mandible and an overshot mandible respectively? Brachygnathia inferior, Brachygnathia superior
Progressive hind limb ataxia, vertebral malformation, lesions ranging C3-C5, and common in thorourghbreds and quarterhorses describes what possible abnormality? Wobbler Syndrome or Cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy
Can dogs get Wobbler's Syndrome and if so where would the lesions be located? Yes, C6-C7
Name the genetic disease previously linked to vampires that cattle can present with red sclera, red/brown teeth and bones, with a photosensitivity. Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria
Growth arrest lines in the metaphysis (parallel to physis) indicate periods of starvation during growth. True or False? True-the lines indicate repeated episodes of retarded growth due to periods of starvation during growth. Growth stops and the physis is capped with bone until animal eats, growth recomences
Manganese is required for synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cartilage matrix. True or False? True
Enlarged joints, shortened and twisted legs in new born calves may be indicative of what diagnosis? Manganese deficiency-mild cases can be resolved with Mn supplementation
Why is Cu needed for bone formation? It is required for the cross linkage of collagen and without it bones become fragile
A pregnant cow was drinking from a trough that had very high levels of flourine. When her calf is born, what possible abnormalities might it have? If the fetus was exposed to the toxic levels of flourine during the development of certain teeth, the calf will have 1) chalky white foci in the enamel 2) brown discoloration of the developing teeth, and 3) accelerated wear +/- chip fractures
A lamb had been grazing around an old house that was being stripped of its original paint. The lamb showed neurological signs before it died. Thick/dense bands are present on the metaphyseal side of the physis. What could this be? Lead toxicity
What vitamin deficiency can lead to deafness in puppies and blindness in calves and piglets? Vitamin A-defective osteoclastic remodeling fails to allow sufficient space in the skull to accomodate the brain + cranial nerves (nerves become hypoplastic)
Vitamin A toxicity can lead to what? 1) Physeal damage (reduced length of long bones) 2) Osteoperosis (reduced osteoblast numbers) 3) Exostoses (leads to vertebral fusion in cats fed liver diets)
What condition is characterised by a Vit C deficiency? Scurvy-Vit C deficiency is needed for collagen cross linkages
Veratrum californicum leads to what deformity? Cyclopia
Wild lupins leads to what deformity? "Crooked calf disease"
Trachymene spp lead to what deformity? "Bentleg" or angular limb deformity
Name the 4 sites that have rapidly growing physes 1)Proximal humerus 2) Distal radius 3) Distal femur 4) Proximal tibia
Angular limb deformity is often due to an asymmetric lesion in a rapidly growing physis. True or False? True-such as the physis in the distal radius
What other factors may lead to an angular limb deformity? ALD could be secondary to abnormally shaped carpal or tarsal bones or a joint instability
An angular limb deformity with a lateral deviation is called what? Valgus
An angular limb deformity with a medial deviation is called what? Varus
Hypothyroidism, poor conformation, osteochondrosis, osteomyelitis, trauma, and joint laxity are all possible causes of what? Angular limb deformity
Angular limb deformity in lambs and kids has a strong association with high energy diets, rapid growth and may present physeal lesions resembling osteochondrosis. True or False True
Animals with angular limb deformity do not develop arthritis later in life. True or False? False-all animals with angular limb deformity develop degenerative joint disease (DJD) and are usually euthanised later in life
Created by: vincentsvet