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Veterinary Osteopath

VETERINARY-General Osteopathology

What cells are osteoblasts and osteocytes derived from? Osteoprogenitor cells
What are osteoclasts derived from? Monocytes
What do osteoblasts manufacture? Osteoid
What do osteoblasts look like histologically? Basophilic cytoplasm, prominent Golgi zone, eccentric nuclei, one small nucleolus
Name at least 4 functions of osteoblasts 1) Produce osteoid 2) Initiate mineralisation 3) Mediate bone resorption via control of osteoclasts 4) Produce regulatory factors important in bone remodeling
What name is given to osteoblasts when they have become surrounded by osteoid and are embedded in bone? Osteocytes
What cells are somewhat histiologically similar to but smaller than osteoblasts? Plasma cells
What do osteoblasts need for normal function? 1) Genetic ability to synthesise osteoid (osteogenesis imperfecta) 2) Substrates for osteoid production (Protein for collagen and proteoglycan synth,Copper + Vitamin C for collagen fibril cross linkages)
What happens if osteoblasts undergo malignant transformation? Osteosarcoma (very common in large breed dogs, less common in cats + other domestic species)
What are the most abundant cells of bone tissue? Osteoblasts
What cells are primarily responsible for bone resorption? Osteoclasts
What do osteoclasts look like histologically? Large, multinucleated cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm
How do osteoclasts resorb bone? 1) Create a locally acidic environment between themselves and bone 2) Acid then demineralises bone and enhances acid hydrolase activity released from the osteoclast 3) Fragments of degraded matrix are endocytosed by osteoclasts, 2* lysosome digestion
What happens to osteoclasts once their resorptive phase is complete? Apoptosis
What happens if osteoclasts are defective? Osteopetrosis
What can cause segmental bone density (sclerosis)? Toxic or viral damage to osteoclasts (lead, BVD, canine distemper virus)
Name the 2 main components of bone matrix Osteoid and Hydroxyapatite
What are the 5 main components of osteoid? 1) Type I collagen (main component of osteoid) 2) Osteocalcin (Vit K dep) 3) Osteonectin 4) Proteoglycans 5) Growth factors
What are the 2 main components of hydroxyapatite? Calcium and Phosphorous
Name 6 components required for the mineralization of osteoid 1) Active Vit D 2) Ionised Ca 3) Phosphorous 4) Osteonectin 5) Osteocalcin 6) Vitamin K
Name 2 hormones and 1 hormone like substance that promote bone resorption (increase blood Ca) Parathyroid hormone, Glucocorticoids, Active Vit D
Name 2 hormones that inhibit bone resoprtion (decrease blood Ca) Calcitonin and Estrogen
Name the 2 types of structural organisation for bone tissue Lamellar bone and Woven bone
Would you find lamellar or woven bone at sites of rapid bone formation such as fracture repair, neoplasia, or inflammation? Woven bone because lamellar bone takes time to organize collagen fibers in matrix
Would you describe cortical bone or trabecular bone as compact bone containing osteons? Cortical bone, trabecular bone is referred to as cancellous or spongy bone + has interconnected plates of either woven or lamellar bone
Bones have blood vessels and nerves. True or False? True
Name the type of ossification that forms bone directly from condensed mesenchymal tissue and occurs in the developing skull and on all periosteal bone surfaces. Intramembranous ossification
Name the type of ossification that forms bone from cartilage precursors, continues at physes until growth in length of bones ceases, and forms the axial and appendicular skeleton as well as the base of the skull Endochondral ossification
How does blood reach the marrow cavity? Blood enters the marrow cavity of bones through nutrient, metaphyseal, and epiphyseal arteries
What law states that bone is deposited at sites where it is required and resorbed at sites where it is not? Wolff's law
Bone adapts or remodels in response to injury or mechanical demand. True or False? True
A young dog has focal physeal damage. What deformity might this cause and what element may lead to a good prognosis of this injury? Angular limb deformity may result from focal physeal damage. If the blood supply on the epiphyseal side is still intact, the prognosis for this dog is good.
Define exostoses A benign new growth projecting from a bone surface and characteristically capped by cartilage
What is 'Codman's triangle'? A localized, triangular ridge of new bone formed where periosteum is elevated. Associated with neoplasms, particularly osteosarcoma and osteomyelitis lesions.
A 3 year old Alaskan Malamute named Boo presents with a fracture of the proximal humerus. The owner was running on the beach with Boo when he suddenly became lame. Do you rule out a pathological fracture due to his young age? Absolutely not! Due to the predilection site, it could be due to an osteosarcoma. Check lungs for metastases
What is a Simple fracture A clean break of the bone
What is a Communicated fracture? A fracture with several fragments
What is an Impacted fracture? A fracture with one segment of bone driven into another
What is a Greenstick fracture? A fracture where the periosteum is still intact...this is good as it is easy to repair
What is an Avulsion fracture? A fracture where a bone fragment is torn away with tendon or ligament
Bone repairs by scar formation as oppsed to regeneration. True or False? False-bone always repairs by regeneration
Name 3 things a surgeon can do to aid in a sucessful fracture repair 1) Adequate stabilisation of bone 2) Close aposition of bone 3) Aseptic technique to prevent infection
Name the 6 steps in fracture repair 1) Hematoma formation at fracture site 2) Ischemic necrosis of adjacent bone 3) Prolif of mesenchymal cells 4) Callus formation 5) Maturation of callus 6) Modeling of callus-restore shape/strength
Describe the tissues involved in callus formation 1) Initially hyaline cartilage + fibrous tissue involved 2) Immature trabecular bone replaces cartilage/Revascularisation occurs 3) Immature woven bone is replaced by lamellar bone
What term is used to describe necrotic bone fragments? Sequestrae
Created by: vincentsvet