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Chp. 11 Respiratory

CHP 11 - THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

QuestionAnswer
Inspection visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements & posture
Palpation the process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs.
Auscultation process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition or to detect fatal heart sounds.
Percussion use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, & consistency of an underlying structure & the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity.
Adenoids Lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx.
Alveoli air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma
Apex of Lung the upper portion of the lung, rising about 2.5 to 5 cm above the collarbone.
Inspection
Palpation
process of listening for sounds within the body, usually to sounds of thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition or to detect fatal heart sounds.
Diaphragm the musculomembranous wall seperating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity.
Percussion use of the fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, & consistency of an underlying structure & the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity.
Epiglottis thin leaf-shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue; covers the entrance of the larynx when the individual swallows.
Lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharynx.
Larynx the enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue; the voice box.
air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma
Nares external nostrils.
Apex of Lung
Bronchi the two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing the passageway for air movement.
Bronchiole one of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes.
Diaphragm the musculomembranous wall seperating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity.
external nostrils.
Nasopharynx part of the pharynx located above the soft palate (postnatal space)
Visceral Pleura portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs.
Paranasal Sinuses hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity.
Apnea a temporary cessation of breathing; "without breathing"
Pharynx passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus. Serves both the respiratory and digestive systems; the throat.
Bradypnea abnormally slow breathing.
Pleura the double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity.
Cough forceful & sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration.
Thorax the chest; the part of the body between the base of the neck & the diaphragm.
Dysphonia difficulty in speaking; hoarseness.
Trachea/Windpipe a cylinder-shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage (to keep it open) that is 4.5 inches long, from the larynx to the bronchial tubes; the windpipe.
Dyspnea air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
Visceral Pleura portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs.
Epistaxis hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed.
Apnea a temporary cessation of breathing; "without breathing"
Bradypnea abnormally slow breathing.
Cough forceful & sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration.
Dysphonia difficulty in speaking; hoarseness.
Dyspnea air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain.
Epistaxis hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed.
Expectoration the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
Hemoptysis expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
Kussmaul Respirations very deep, gasping type of respiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis.
Orthopnea respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position.
Rales abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls, also known as crackle.
Rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose.
Rhonchi rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring.
Sneeze to expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa.
Stridor harsh sound during respiration; high pitches & resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages.
Tachypnea abnormal rapidity of breathing.
Wheeze whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway.
Coryza inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes known as rhinitison the common cold.
Croup childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, hoarseness, tachypnea, inspiratory, stridor, and laryngeal spasm.
Laryngitis inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in dysphonia (hoarseness), cough, and difficulty swallowing.
Pertussis an acute upper respiratory infectious disease, caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis "whooping cough".
Pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat.
Rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain, also known as coryza.
Sinusitis inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus.
Tonsillitis inflammation of the palatine tonsils, located in the area of the oropharynx.
Asthma paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane.
Bronchitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. infection is often preceded by the common cold.
Bronchogenic Carcinoma malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer.
Emphysema chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls.
Pleuritis/Pleurisy inflammation of both the visceral and perietal pleura.
Pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses & chemical irritants.
Pneumothorax a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. the air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall or the pleura covering the lung (visceral pleura), causing the lung to collapse.
Pulmonary Edema swelling of the lungs cause by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces.
Pulmonary Embolism the obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus (clot) that dislodges from another location and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung.
Pulmonary Heart Disease/Cor Pulmonale hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart (with or without failure) resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall; heart failure resulting from pulmonary disease.
Tubeerculosis infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous (cheeselike) necrosis in the tissues of the lungs.
Anthracosis accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust (black lung disease); also called coal worker's pneumonconiosis.
Asbestosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles.
Byssinosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp; also known as brown lung disease.
Silicosis lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica (quartz) dust, characterized by formation of small nodules.
Bronchoscopy examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube known as a bronchoscope (or endoscope)
Chest X-ray use of high-energy electromagnetic waves passing through the body onto a photographic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis & therapy.
Laryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngscope (or endoscope).
Pulmonary Function Tests physicians use this variety of tests to assess respiratory function.
Thoracentesis involves the use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space.
Created by: kmariemurray